Similarly, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced chronic dopaminergic denerva

Similarly, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced chronic dopaminergic denervation induced a significant increase in expression of AT1, AT2 and p47phox, which decreased with L-dopa administration. A significant reduction in expression of AT1 mRNA was also observed after administration of dopamine to cultures of microglial cells. Transgenic rats with very low levels of brain AII showed increased AT1, decreased p47 phox and no changes in AT2 expression, whereas mice deficient in AT1 exhibited a decrease in the expression of p47 phox and AT2. The administration of relatively high doses of AII (100 nm) decreased the expression of AT1, and the increased expression of AT2 and p47phox in primary mesencephalic cultures.

The results reveal an important interaction between the dopaminergic and local renin–angiotensin system in the basal ganglia, which may be a major factor see more in the progression of Parkinson’s disease. “
“Thermoregulation enables adaptation to different ambient temperatures. A complex network of central autonomic centres may be involved. In contrast to the brainstem, the role of the cortex has not been clearly evaluated. This study was therefore designed to address cerebral function during a whole thermoregulatory cycle (cold, neutral and warm stimulation)

using 18-fluordeoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET). Sympathetic activation parameters were co-registered. Ten healthy male volunteers were examined three times on three different days in a water-perfused whole-body suit. After isothipendyl a baseline period (32°C), temperature was either decreased to 7°C (cold), increased to 50°C (warm) or kept constant (32°C, selleck chemicals llc neutral), thereafter the PET examination was performed. Cerebral glucose metabolism was increased in infrapontine brainstem and cerebellar hemispheres during cooling and warming, each compared with neutral temperature. Simultaneously, FDG uptake decreased in the bilateral

anterior/mid-cingulate cortex during warming, and in the right insula during cooling and warming. Conjunction analyses revealed that right insular deactivation and brainstem activation appeared both during cold and warm stimulation. Metabolic connectivity analyses revealed positive correlations between the cortical activations, and negative correlations between these cortical areas and brainstem/cerebellar regions. Heart rate changes negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex and in the middle frontal gyrus/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and changes of sweating with glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex. In summary, these results suggest that the cerebral cortex exerts an inhibitory control on autonomic centres located in the brainstem or cerebellum. These findings may represent reasonable explanations for sympathetic hyperactivity, which occurs, for example, after hemispheric stroke. “
“The molecular mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease remain elusive.

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