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TO (T Ono) developed the computational code, implemented the calculations, and completed the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.”

“Background Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is an important and widely used process for forming various kinds of thin films in the electronics industry to fabricate, for example, very-large-scale integration and solar cells. For PECVD, capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) has the advantage of generating the large-area plasma necessary to process large substrates. However, when the electrodes become large relative to the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave used to generate the plasma, the standing wave effect will become significant, deteriorating the uniformity of the film thickness obtained [1–5]. It is considered that the voltage distribution over the CCP electrode greatly affects not only the distribution of plasma characteristics, such as plasma density and electron temperature, but also the deposited film thickness uniformity, especially in the case of PECVD.