Pain physiology education comprises of a first face-to-face sessi

Pain physiology education comprises of a first face-to-face session explaining basic pain physiology and contrasting acute nociception versus chronic pain. Written information about pain physiology should be provided as homework in between session 1 and 2. The second session can be used to correct misunderstandings, and to facilitate the transition from knowledge to adaptive pain coping during daily life. Pain physiology education is a continuous process initiated during the two educational sessions prior to and continuing BIBW2992 purchase into active treatment and followed-up during the longer term rehabilitation program. Mira Meeus is a postdoctoral research fellow

of Research Foundation Flanders – FWO (Belgium). Jessica Van Oosterwijck is financially supported by grant no. OZR1596 from the research council of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. The authors would like to thank Lorna Paul (PhD, PT; University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK) for editing the final version of the article. “
“Current Opinion in Food Science 2015, 1:44–49 This review comes from a themed issue on Food bioprocessing Edited by Fidel Toldrá 2214-7993/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of forestry,

agricultural, agro industrial and food wastes that are abundant, renewable and inexpensive energy sources. Olopatadine These lignocellulose wastes accumulate in large quantities and can cause environmental problems. Since the chemical composition of these materials consists mainly of polymer sugars (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin, these chemical components can

be recycled and used for the production of a number of value added products, such as ethanol, food additives, organic acids, enzymes, and others. The production of biofuels and alternative chemical products from agricultural residues is considered one of the most promising strategies to replace non-renewable fossil fuels. Most biofuels are produced from first generation substrates including sugarcane, corn, sugar beet, etc. that directly compete with food production. For this reason, more attention has been given to the development of biofuels from agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw and sugarcane bagasse. First generation biofuels are produced from simple vegetal components including sucrose and starch, while second generation biofuel production requires the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into simple sugars. This sustainable method requires complexes enzyme mixtures due to the different compositions of lignocellulose from different agricultural residues.

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