“Microcirculation (2010) 17, 250–258. doi: 10.1111/j.1549-8719.2010.00020.x Objective: Obesity, an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, may induce renal injury by promoting inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines can induce neovascularization in different organs, including the kidneys. However, whether obesity triggers
renal neovascularization and, if so, its effect on renal function has never been investigated. Methods: Blood pressure, proteinuria, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured in vivo. Renal microvascular (MV) architecture was studied by 3D micro-CT in lean and obese Zucker rats (LZR and OZR, n = 7/group) at 12, 22, and 32 weeks of age. Renal inflammation Neratinib mw was assessed by quantifying interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and ED-1 expression, as renal fibrosis in trichrome-stained cross-sections. Results: Mild inflammation and lower GFR was only observed selleck inhibitor in younger OZR, without renal fibrosis or changes in MV density. Interestingly, renal MV density increased in OZR at 32 weeks of age, accompanied by pronounced increase in renal IL-6 and TNF-alpha, ED-1+ cells, proteinuria, decreased GFR, and fibrosis. Conclusions: This study shows increased renal cortical vascularization in experimental obesity, suggesting neovascularization
as an evolving process as obesity progresses. Increased Gefitinib mw renal vascularization, possibly triggered by inflammation, may reflect an initially compensatory mechanism in obesity. However, increased inflammation and inflammatory-induced neovascularization may further promote renal injury as obesity advances. “
“We examined insulins uptake and transendothelial transport by endothelial cells in order to: (i) ascertain whether insulin accumulates within the cells to concentrations greater than in the media; (ii) compare trans endothelial insulin transport to that of inulin (using the latter as a tracer for passive transport or leaked); and; (iii) determine whether insulins transported depended on insulin action. Using
125I-insulin at physiologic concentrations we measured both the uptake and trans endothelial transport of insulin by bovine aortic endothelial cells and measured cell volume using tritiated 3-O-methylglucose. Bovine aortic endothelial cells accumulate insulin to > five-fold above the media concentrations and the trans endothelial transport of insulin, but not inulin, is saturable and requires intact PI-3-kinase and MEK signaling. The insulin receptor and downstream signaling from the receptor regulates endothelial insulin transport. Insulin is accumulated against a concentration gradient by the endothelial cell. We suggest that insulin uptake is rate limiting for insulin trans endothelial transport. “
“In vitro superoxide activates pulmonary endothelial TRPM2 channels and increases Kf.