LeBlanc et al [61] tested the thermic effect of food in six indi

LeBlanc et al. [61] tested the thermic effect of food in six individuals after consuming four small meals

LBH589 purchase as opposed to one large meal of equal caloric density. Contrary to the earlier findings of Tai et al. [66], post-prandial thermogenesis and fat utilization was greater in the group that consumed the smaller, more frequent meals [61]. Smeets and colleagues [68] conducted a very practical study comparing the differences in consuming either two or three meals a day in normal weight females in energy balance. In this randomized, crossover design in which participants consumed the same amount of calories over a traditional three meal pattern (i.e., breakfast, lunch, and dinner) compared to just two meals (breakfast and dinner) it was demonstrated that there was no significant difference on diet induced thermogenesis when measured over 36 hours in a respiration chamber [68]. However, by consuming three meals per day, fat oxidation, measured over 24 hours using deuterium labeled fatty acids was significantly greater and carbohydrate oxidation was significantly lower when compared to eating just two meals per day [68]. Resting Metabolic Rate/Total Energy

Expenditure It is MK-2206 in vitro argued that the best methodology to study the effects of meal frequency on metabolism utilizes a metabolic/respiratory chamber (i.e., a whole body calorimeter). While these conditions are not free living, these types of studies are able to control extraneous BAY 11-7082 cell line variables to a greater extent than other methods. Four investigations utilizing overweight/obese participants [40, 41, 69, 70] and one investigation examining normal-weight participants [7] confined the GPX6 participants to either a metabolic/respiration chamber [7, 41, 69, 70] or a confined metabolic unit [40] and reported that there were no improvements in resting

metabolic rate or 24-hour energy expenditure due to increasing the number of meals ingested. In each of these investigations, the same number of calories were ingested over the duration of a day, but the number of meals ingested to consume those calories varied from one vs. three and five feedings [40], two vs. three to five feedings [41], two vs. seven feedings [7, 70], and two vs. six feedings [69]. The amount of time the participants were confined to the metabolic/respiratory chambers or metabolic unit ranged from a few hours [7] to a few days [41, 69, 70] to several weeks [40]. From the aforementioned studies examining the effect of meal frequency on the thermic effect of food and total energy expenditure, it appears that increasing meal frequency does not statistically elevate metabolic rate. Protein Metabolism Garrow et al.

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