It was discovered that hardness values can be significantly affec

It was discovered that hardness values can be significantly affected by the indenter radius when a spherical indenter is applied. Xue et al. [10] established a model to study the effect of tip radius on micro-indentation hardness. The results show that the effect of the indenter tip radius disappears once the contact radius exceeds one half of the indenter tip radius. Moreover, to measure the indentation modulus and hardness of copper more precisely, McElhaney et al. [11] proposed a novel method to measure the contact area by taking into account the influence

of inherent pile-up and sink-in in the indentation experiment of polycrystalline copper. Similarly, Ma and Clarke [12] investigated the relationship between size effect and crystal anisotropy in

hardness measurement. The existence of a liquid in nano-indentation is believed APO866 solubility dmso to be able to reduce the ISE. For example, Atkinson and Shi [13] investigated the apparent variation of the hardness of iron by varying the load from 15 g to 20 kg. It is found that the hardness variation is markedly reduced by liquid lubrication. This result suggests that the ISE is actually dependent upon friction condition. A similar experiment was performed by Ren et al. [14]. The load varies from 0.125 to 1 kg in the indentation process of single-crystal MgO, but the ISE is seldom affected by the addition of DAPT in vitro a liquid for this material. Li et al. [15] studied the influence of a liquid on the friction between the micro-hardness indenter and the test material. It is claimed that the friction is the major reason for the increased hardness values under low loads and the ISE is related to the surface area-to-volume ratio. BCKDHA Moreover, Almond and Roebuck

[16] discovered that the effect of lubrication on indentation hardness is significantly related to the indenter geometry. The existence of a liquid has little effect when the indenter’s inclined angle is greater than 120°. In this study, to investigate how the existence of a liquid affects the tool/material interaction in nano-indentation, as well indentation measurements, we adopt the technique of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. This is an effective numerical approach for studying many intriguing issues such as material deformation, dislocation propagation, phase transformation, as well as material property evaluation. Many of these issues are beyond the capability of experimental approaches under very small scales. It should be noted that MD simulation has been widely adopted in studying various nano-manufacturing processes, such as nano-indentation [17], nano-machining [18, 19], and nano-forming [20]. Nevertheless, the MD simulation literature on material processing that considers material deformation under wet condition is scarce.

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