included both Cariniana micrantha and Carinana decandra ( Procopi

included both Cariniana micrantha and Carinana decandra ( Procopio and Secco, 2008). Other studies of complex genera including Copaifera (Fabaceae, Martins-da-Silva, 2006), Tabebuia (Bignoniaceae, Costa, 2004), and Microphollis (Sapotaceae, Silva, 2004) have found similar mis-identification. Lacerda and Nimmo (2010) reported that at least 43.5% of all species identified after botanical

checking did not appear in the forest inventory and the common practice of matching vernacular buy AZD2281 names to scientific ones proved to be severely deficient. Considering the high importance of correct botanical identification and the uncertainity of forest inventory data which provide the basis for selective logging operations, community and rural extension training in identification is important. Hence, Dendrogene and follow-up projects have provided training course and written guides on this (Ferreira et al., 2004 and Procópio et al., 2005). The RG7204 manufacturer Eco-gene model has been used to elucidate genetic processes and the consequences

of logging and forest fragmentation in the long term (Sebben et al., 2008). In this model, data on genetic structure, gene flow and the reproductive biology of Amazonian timber species before and after logging were integrated with data on growth, regeneration and ecology under different scenarios and intensities of logging. The expectation was that these results would help to guide and create new criteria for sustainable logging in the region. Seven species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics were selected for incorporation in the model. The species fit into three ecological groups

(pioneer, climax of fast growth/light demanding and climax Astemizole of slow growth/shade tolerant categories) and have different reproductive systems (dioecious, monoecious, hermaphrodite), with different pollinators and seed dispersers. The seven species invesitigated were Bagassa guianensis (Moraceae), Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), Jacaranda copaia (Bignoniaceae), Dipteryx odorata. (Fabaceae), Hymenaea courbaril (Fabaceae), Symphonia globulifera (Clusiaceae) and Manilkara huberi. (Sapotaceae). Dipteryx odorata, J. copaia and M. huberi are hermaphrodites and pollinated by insects, while B. guianensis is dioecious and mainly wind-pollinated, with the participation of trips, a tiny insect. Hymenaea courbaril is hermaphrodite and pollinated by bats, while S. globulifera is hermaphrodite and pollinated by birds, moths and butterflies. Dipteryx odorata and B. guianensis occur at low density in the study area (0.17 and 0.34 individuals per hectare, respectively), while H. courbaril and S. globulifera occur at somewhat higher density (0.58 and 0.88 individuals per hectare, respectively, the latter being for trees >10 cm dbh), and J. copaia, M.

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