In summary, the CSF biomarkers A beta(1-42), T-tau and P-tau(181P

In summary, the CSF biomarkers A beta(1-42), T-tau and P-tau(181P) can be used in clinical practice to discriminate AD from healthy aging (including psychiatric disorders like depression), to diagnose AD in its prodromal phase or in atypical forms with prominent non-memory impairment, to identify AD in patients with mixed pathologies and in case of an ambiguous (AD versus non-AD) dementia diagnosis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson

SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Identification of disease-specific selleck chemicals diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers allowing for an early characterization and accurate clinical follow-up of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients is a major clinical objective. Increasing evidences implicate both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses in the pathophysiology of AD. Such disease-related B- and T-cell responses constitute a promising source of potential specific early biomarkers. Among them, levels of anti-A beta antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal

fluid of patients may correlate with AD progression, clinical presentation of the disease, and occurrence of associated pathologies related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In the same line, A beta-specific T cell responses and immune regulatory populations implicated in their modulation appear to play a role in the pathophysiology of AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Further characterization of both autoantibodies and T cell responses specific for disease-related proteins, i.e. A beta and hyperphosphorylated Tau, will allow better deciphering their interest as early diagnostic and prognostic markers in AD. Biomarkers of adaptive immune responses specific for other pathological proteins may also apply to other neurological disorders associated with abnormal protein deposition. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“A paradigm shift has occurred in the last ten years in the diagnostic field of Alzheimer’s

disease (AD). Scientific thought has enriched the concept of AD as a pathophysiological continuum and emphasized contribution of biological, morphological and functional brain imaging biomarkers for diagnosis, in particular during the early stages of the disease. We address here the present and the future of these biological biomarkers. Most of them are linked to the pathophysiological lesions of the Alzheimer process: aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau Electron transport chain proteins, also called neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and extracellular deposit of amyloid-beta peptides (A beta) also called senile plaques. The detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of tau and A beta represents the current diagnostic practice of AD. Improvement for a more accurate and earlier biological diagnosis is however expected using a new generation of biomarkers, mostly in relation with tau and A beta metabolism. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“A major challenge for neuroimaging is to contribute to the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

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