Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), a disease associated w

Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), a disease associated with low platelet counts and mucocutaneous bleeding, is driven primarily by antibodies. In a historical experiment, Harrington demonstrated, by injecting himself with the blood from an ITP patient, that a serum factor

was responsible for ITP [2]. Within a few hours after the administration of the blood from the ITP patient, Harrington reported a rapid drop in his blood platelet counts [2]. Patients with antibody deficiencies are highly susceptible to microbial infections [3], and paradoxically are also more prone to ITP or autoimmune hemolytic anemia than the general population [4]. find more These diseases are caused by autoantibodies directed against platelets or RBCs, respectively, and can be treated by the administration of high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg).

IVIg is increasingly used to treat autoimmune diseases, yet the suppression of such diseases by the injection of serum Ig remains poorly understood. STA-9090 concentration In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Schwab et al. [5] report important new findings on the molecular pathways involved in neutralizing the pathogenic functions of autoantibodies by such Ig preparations. IVIg was initially developed for the treatment of immunodeficiencies. The first treatment of an autoimmune disease by IVIg was reported in 1981 by Imbach et al. [6], who observed that administration of large doses of IVIgs led to a rapid rise in platelet counts in children with ITP. IVIg consists of polyclonal preparations of human Igs obtained by pooling plasma from large numbers (usually more than 3000) of donors. These preparations consist predominantly of intact IgG with a distribution of isotype subclasses corresponding to that found in normal serum [7]. IVIg also contains small amounts of IgA, and IgM, as well as traces

of cytokines [8]. The utilization of IVIg to treat immunodeficiencies or autoimmune disorders has increased steadily Thalidomide over recent years, and its worldwide consumption nearly tripled during the period 1992–2004 [9]. Application of IVIg in the clinic is currently limited by availability and elevated production costs. There is therefore considerable interest in identifying the active components mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of IVIg because this might guide the development of alternatives suitable for broader utilization. There is evidence that both the antibody variable region (Fab fragments) and the constant crystalizable domain (Fc fragment) can contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of IVIg [10, 11]. Nonetheless, the beneficial effects of IVIg could be recapitulated in children with acute ITP using only the Fc fragments from IgG antibodies [11].

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