However, this group increased significantly during the treatment period. It remains unclear, if Pasteurella multocida has developed resistance to check details Tylosin in CDK inhibitor the here studied dogs, or if the intestinal phylotypes differ from those isolated from the lung. Tylosin appears to be an appropriate antibiotic for the treatment of C. perfringens-associated diarrhea in canine patients, although resistant strains have been observed . Similarly, in a chicken model of necrotizing enteritis, tylosin quantitatively decreased the proportion of mucolytic C. perfringens . However in this study, the percentage of C. perfringens-like organisms increased from 21.8% on day 0 to 86.7% on day 14 in one dog, suggesting
that this dog harbored a resistant strain. Our results also suggest that the proposed mode of action of an antibiotic on different bacterial genera does not necessarily match the in vivo effects, as several bacterial groups that are considered to be sensitive to tylosin increased in their proportions. Because of the
nature of an ecosystem, selleck kinase inhibitor the changes that are induced by an antibiotic on one set of organisms will affect others, and this is not necessarily predicted by in vitro antibiotic sensitivities. E. coli-like organisms, a bacterial group that has also been associated with a negative impact on gastrointestinal health in dogs [24, 35] increased significantly by day 28. The enrichment of E. coli-like organisms is not surprising, as this group is intrinsically resistant to tylosin, and similar increases have been observed in pigs after tylosin treatment . However, we have no obvious explanation why this effect was observed on day 28 rather than day 14, the last day of tylosin administration. Also, based on the techniques used, it is not possible to determine if a bacterial population proliferated or simply increased in proportion because
other bacteria were affected (directly Loperamide or indirectly) by the antibiotic treatment. While E. coli-like organisms and C. perfringens increased in some of the dogs, this was not associated with any obvious clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. We speculate that despite obvious changes in microbial populations, the intestinal ecosystem has enough functional redundancy to maintain gastrointestinal health. Similar findings have also been reported in humans, where short-term courses of antibiotics led to significant shifts in fecal microbiota patterns, yet no obvious gastrointestinal signs were observed [8, 16]. However, all these studies, including the present one, have evaluated healthy individuals, which may harbor a stable intestinal ecosystem that has enough functional redundancy to withstand short-term modulations. It is currently unknown how antibiotics affect dogs with gastrointestinal disease that may be more susceptible to such treatments.