Here we explore the possible behavioural implications of these fi

Here we explore the possible behavioural implications of these findings by investigating the role displayed by acetaldehyde (the main metabolite of ethanol) and the non-metabolized fraction of ethanol in motor activity SNX-5422 of rats. We analyse the appearance of motor activation or depression after

intra-VTA administration of ethanol in rats subjected to different pharmacological pre-treatments designed to preferentially test either the effects of acetaldehyde or the non-metabolized ethanol. Motor activity was evaluated after intra-VTA administration of 35 nmol of ethanol, an apparently ineffective dose that does not modify the motor activity of animals.

Pharmacological pre-treatments were used in order to either increase (cyanamide, 10 mg/kg, ip) or decrease (D-penicillamine, 50 mg/kg, ip and sodium azide, 7 mg/kg, 3-Methyladenine chemical structure ip) acetaldehyde levels in the VTA. Pre-treatments aimed to augment acetaldehyde, increased motor activity of rats. Otherwise, pre-treatments intended to decrease local acetaldehyde levels evoked significant reductions in motor activity that were prevented by the local blockade (bicuculline, 17.5 pmol) of the GABA(A) receptors. Our findings suggest that the brain-generated acetaldehyde is involved in the stimulant effects of ethanol, whereas the non-biotransformed fraction of ethanol, acting through the

GABA(A) receptors, would account for the depressant effects. The present behavioural findings suggest that ethanol dually modulates the activity of DA neurons. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human noroviruses are one of the major causes of acute gastroenteritis in the developed world, yet our understanding of their molecular mechanisms of genome translation and replication lags behind that for many RNA viruses. Due to the nonculturable nature of human noroviruses, many related members of the Caliciviridae family AZD9291 price of small RNA viruses are often used as model systems to dissect the finer details of the norovirus life cycle. Murine norovirus (MNV) has provided one such system with which to study the basic mechanisms of norovirus translation and replication in cell culture. In this report we describe the use of riboproteomics to identify host factors that interact with the extremities of the MNV genome. This network of RNA-protein interactions contains many well-characterized host factors, including PTB, La, and DDX3, which have been shown to play a role in the life cycle of other RNA viruses. By using RNA coimmunoprecipitation, we confirmed that a number of the factors identified using riboproteomics are associated with the viral RNA during virus replication in cell culture.

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