Especially cholestatic liver diseases (primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis) appear to be different from other chronic liver diseases with regards to pathogenesis. Portal fibroblasts located in the connective tissue surrounding bile ducts appear to be different from hepatic stellate cells with regards to expression of marker proteins and response the profibrogenic and mitogenic stimuli. In addition there is increasing evidence for a cross talk between activated cholangiocytes and portal myofibroblasts. Several animal models have improved our understanding of the mechanisms
underlying these chronic liver diseases. In the present review, we discuss the current concepts and ideas with regards to myofibroblastic cell PD-1/PD-L1 mutation populations, mechanisms of fibrosis, summarize characteristic histological findings and currently employed animal models of autoimmune and cholestatic liver disease. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This article contains a review of the most significant contributions to pediatric cardiology and congenital heart disease reported in publications between September 2009 and August mTOR inhibitor 2010. The review focuses on imaging techniques, new treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension in pediatric patients, and therapy in general (e.g.
hybrid treatment and surgical treatment). With regard to imaging techniques, the review highlights the increasing application of congenital heart disease diagnosis during fetal life, the introduction of new echocardiographic techniques (e.g. tissue Doppler imaging, two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging and three-dimensional echocardiography) into routine clinical practice, and the growing use of cardiac CT and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis and the assessment of cardiac function, respectively. The role played by cardiac interventions continues to increase and cardiac surgery is becoming more advanced and has, in some cases, been combined with hybrid techniques. However, there are still a number of controversial issues in cardiac surgery that have not
yet been resolved, such as whether or not fenestration should be used with Fontan surgery, the optimum type of correction for hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and the HM781-36B inhibitor best conduit for pulmonary artery replacement.”
“Numerous paediatric liver diseases from different origins may be complicated by development of liver fibrosis and progression to cirrhosis. Although fibrogenesis, which represents a major driving force for the development of liver fibrosis, has common tracts whatever the aetiology, liver fibrosis has different histopathological patterns in paediatric liver disease. In these diseases management choices may depend upon the stage of liver fibrosis. Thus, the accurate estimation of histological pattern of liver fibrosis is important for the prevention of the subsequent complications.