Competing interests: Otto Bock Healthcare provided electrical sti

Competing interests: Otto Bock Healthcare provided electrical stimulators free of charge. None of the sponsors had any involvement in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. We thank the assessors Ank Mollema and Marian Stegink (De Vogellanden, Zwolle), the local trial co-ordinators Marijke Wiersma and Siepie Zonderland (Revalidatie Friesland, Beetsterzwaag), Astrid Kokkeler and Dorien Nijenhuis (MRC Aardenburg, Doorn), Alinda Gjaltema

BLU9931 molecular weight and Femke Dekker (De Vogellanden, Zwolle) and the participants, physicians, physio- and occupational therapists and nursing staff involved in the trial. “
“Grip strength is used extensively in the assessment of hand function. Because it is directly affected by the neural, muscular and skeletal systems, grip strength is used in the evaluation of patients with a large range of pathologies that impair the upper extremities, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis,

muscular dystrophy, tenosynovitis, stroke, and congenital malformations. Grip strength measurements also have an established role in determining treatment Enzalutamide in vivo efficacy, such as in the evaluation of different wrist orthoses, the effect of hand exercises in rheumatoid arthritis, and recovery after trauma. Also, they are used as an outcome measure after many different surgical interventions. Grip strength many measurements provide a well established and objective score that is reflective of hand function and that is easily and quickly obtainable by a range of different health professionals. Since comparison to normative data is important when making statements about specific patient groups or treatments, obtaining normative data for grip strength in adults has been the subject of many studies. In contrast, normative data for children is far less readily available. To identify studies on this topic we searched PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE using combinations of the search terms:

children, adolescents, grip strength, dynamometer, Jamar hand dynamometer, JHD, normative data and reference values. Reference lists of relevant articles were then screened to identify additional articles that might not have shown up in the search. Although we found several studies focusing specifically on grip strength in children, most of them had not assessed height and weight as factors of influence (Ager et al 1984, Bear-Lehman et al 2002, Butterfield et al 2009, De Smet and Vercammen 2001, Mathiowetz et al 1986). This is remarkable in the case of growing children, especially when weight and height are known to correlate with strength in children (Rauch 2002, Häger-Ross and Rösblad 2002, Newman et al 1984).

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