Cidofovir was shown in a large multicentre study to provide no ad

Cidofovir was shown in a large multicentre study to provide no additional

benefit to HAART alone [105] and these results have been confirmed in retrospective analyses of pooled data from prior cohort or observational studies [106,107]. Similarly, cytarabine, either intravenously or intrathecally, failed to demonstrate additional benefit to ARV treatment, albeit this study was conducted pre-HAART [108]. Hence, HAART remains the only therapeutic option. The choice of HAART should consider probable CNS penetration as one study has shown a better outcome with drugs based on their CNS penetration score [110]. There is no therapy that has been identified MAPK inhibitor as effective in preventing PML. From a predicted survival of 10% at one year, 50% of patients receiving HAART now survive for this length of time [110] and some patients enter true remission of disease with stabilization of neurological morbidity and the development of atrophy and gliosis on MRI. Also, since the impact of HAART on PML may be less than for other

focal neurological lesions, the relative contribution of PML to the incidence of focal lesions in the brain may have increased [100]. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the human β-herpesviruses. Like other members, it has the ability to establish lifelong persistent and latent infection after primary exposure. Lenvatinib In the context of immunodeficiency, particularly cell-mediated, this may result in severe primary or reactivated clinical disease. Nearly all men who have sex with men (MSM) are seropositive whereas in heterosexuals and injection drug users, the rate is 50–75% [111]. With clinical progression of HIV, latent CMV reactivates, leading to viraemia and, in a proportion, end-organ disease. Prior to the advent of HAART, observational studies demonstrated that 20–40% of patients with AIDS developed CMV disease, with many more patients having

Erastin manufacturer evidence of disease at post mortem. End-organ disease incidence becomes substantially higher when the CD4 count falls to <50 cells/μL. The major sites of CMV disease are the retina, which accounts for approximately three-quarters of cases, the GI tract, the lung, the liver and biliary tract, the heart, adrenal glands and the nervous system (encephalitis and polyradiculitis). The widespread uptake of HAART has radically altered the epidemiology with most patients starting treatment before they become at risk for CMV disease. Nervous system infection accounts for <1% of clinical CMV disease [112,113]. Clinical signs and symptoms are insensitive and difficult to distinguish from AIDS-dementia complex.

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