As with all sports nutrition research, results can vary depending

As with all sports nutrition research, results can vary depending on the protocol used, and in particular, the training status of the athlete as well as intensity and duration of exercise. For example, Crowe et al. [47] examined the effects of caffeine at a dose of 6 mg/kg on cognitive parameters in recreationally active team sport individuals, who performed two maximal 60-second bouts of cycling on an air-braked cycle ergometer. In this investigation [47], untrained, moderately habituated (80-200 mg/d) participants completed three trials (caffeine, placebo, control) and underwent cognitive assessments prior to consumption of each treatment, post-ingestion at approximately

72-90 min, and immediately following exercise. Cognitive testing consisted of simple visual reaction time PXD101 chemical structure and number recall tests. Participants performed two 60-second maximal cycle tests interspersed by three min of passive rest. The results were in contrast to other studies that investigated cognitive parameters and the use of caffeine [25, 36–38, 40] in that caffeine had no significant impact on reaction time or number recall, and there was no additional benefit for measurements of power. In fact, in this study [47], the caffeine

treatment resulted in significantly slower times to reach peak power in the second bout of maximal cycling. Elsewhere, Foskett and colleagues [48] investigated the potential benefits of caffeine on cognitive parameters and intermittent sprint activity Selleckchem NVP-HSP990 and determined that a moderate dose (6 mg/kg) of caffeine improved a soccer player’s ball passing accuracy and control, thereby attributing the increase in accuracy to an enhancement of fine motor skills. Based on some of the research cited above, it appears that caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid for individuals

either involved in special force military units or who may routinely undergo stress including, but not limited to, extended periods of sleep deprivation. Caffeine in these conditions has been shown to enhance cognitive parameters of concentration and alertness. It has been shown that caffeine may also benefit endurance athletes both physically and cognitively. However, the research is conflicting when extrapolating the benefits of caffeine to cognition and shorter bouts of high-intensity exercise. A discussion will follow examining the effects of caffeine and high-intensity exercise in trained and non-trained individuals, which may partially explain a difference in the literature as it pertains to short-term high-intensity exercise. Caffeine and Carbohydrate An extensive body of research has provided compelling evidence to support the theory that caffeine’s primary ergogenic mode of action is on the CNS. However, caffeine may also be ergogenic in nature by enhancing lipolysis and NCT-501 decreasing reliance on glycogen utilization. In 1979, Ivy et al. [16] published an investigation that supported the latter concept [16].

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