As a first step toward a better understanding of these behaviors,

As a first step toward a better understanding of these behaviors, a review of the literature was undertaken to find out what is already known about this subject. English language articles published from 1990 (the approximate date from when cases of imported malaria began to increase)

to December 2008 were searched, using the bibliographic databases “Pubmed,”“Web of Knowledge,” and “Embase”; search terms were: “migrants and malaria,”“immigrants and malaria,”“imported malaria,” and “visiting LDK378 research buy friends and relatives.” Reference lists from articles considered for inclusion were also searched. Articles set in European countries, in which primary research into the reasons for the high incidence of malaria in the African community were explored, focusing in particular on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of travelers. Papers published before 1990; set in countries outside Europe; those which dealt only with the clinical management of individual imported cases; the main text (excluding abstract) was written in a non-English language paper. Eighty-six papers were identified by the search, of which three met the inclusion criteria and were selected for analysis

(Table 1). The three studies which fitted the inclusion criteria were small scale, only of differing designs, and used varying methodologies. Analysis was also hampered by a lack of uniformity in the definitions used. Despite the constraints encountered in synthesizing the research findings from these studies, it was possible to identify three specific areas that are relevant to the increased malaria risk in VFRs. These were: knowledge of how malaria

is transmitted (n = 2), perceptions surrounding risk (n = 3), and attitudes affecting the use of chemoprophylaxis (n = 3). The data on each area are considered in turn. Pistone and colleagues10 found that in a study of VFRs in Paris, 141/191 (74%) of subjects interviewed knew that malaria was transmitted by mosquitoes. This study also found no statistical difference in knowledge between those attending a travel agent and those visiting a travel clinic, with the other most commonly mentioned malaria transmission routes being dirty water (6%) and the sun (4%). In the study of immigrants from West Africa in the Netherlands, Schilthuis11 found that only 81/292 (28%) named mosquitoes as the sole route of transmission. In this study, Schilthuis11 categorized knowledge of the causes of malaria into “adequate,”“inadequate,” or “unclear,” the latter being a combination of “adequate” and “inadequate” knowledge.

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