research designs were included Papers were excluded


research designs were included. Papers were excluded if catheter duration was < 30 days or were single case reports. Results: Twenty-six articles were identified for potential inclusion from an initial 394 and 14 retained after final review. Studies varied in subjects, outcome measures, and publication dates. The majority were retrospective reviews; four were descriptive/qualitative studies. Based on the clinical findings, this website suprapubic catheters are associated with a low incidence of urethral injury and stricture, but have similar rates of upper tract damage, vesicoureteral reflux, renal or bladder calculi, and symptomatic urinary tract infections compared to urethral catheters. Users report being generally satisfied with suprapubic catheters. No studies addressed stoma or skin care, urethral leakage, or adherence to the suprapubic catheter after insertion. Conclusion: Most studies focused on clinical urologic issues

rather than patient understanding of suprapubic catheter management, satisfaction, stoma and skin care, or health related QoL. Further studies are needed to elucidate efficacy from an individual user and clinician perspective. Neurourol. Urodynam. 32: 944-951, 2013. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“This study was carried out to investigate the changes of yield, total phenolics, saponin content and composition, antimicrobial, 3-MA datasheet and antioxidant activities of various fractions of fine ginseng

root (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) by maceration BMS-777607 cell line method in the order of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water). Butanol fraction showed the highest total saponin content compare to other fractions. Hexane traction could harvest significantly high ginsenoside Rg2, Rg1, and Rf(p<0.05). And the contents of ginsenoside Rh1, R,,3, and Rg1 showed relatively hi-her in the fraction of ethyl acetate than other fractions. The system of hexane-chloroform-ethyl aceate-butanol showed relatively high content of ginsenoside Re, Rd, Rc, Rb3, and Rb1. However, the last fraction of water still remained lots of Rb2 content. The fraction of water was the highest phenolics. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazil, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of water fraction was higher than the other fractions. In antimicrobial activity the fraction of hexane showed relatively high antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus. Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli. And the fractions of the chloroform and ethyl acetate showed higher antimicrobial activities than the other samples in against P. aeruginosa and S. typhimurium.

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