, 2007) NGAL concentration was measured by Therapeutics Research

, 2007). NGAL concentration was measured by Therapeutics Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia in October 2009. These assays were conducted using the Triage® NGAL Test, a point-of-care fluorescence immunoassay using the Triage Meter according to product guidelines. Median values and inter-quartile ranges were determined for each

renal biomarker and compared non-parametrically. The rate of change of creatinine and cystatin C concentrations in serial samples were determined and compared between survivors and deaths. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the best threshold (as determined by Youden’s index (Youden, 1950)) for the rate of change of creatinine (dCr/dt) and cystatin C (dCyC/dt) concentrations for predicting death, including likelihood ratios, sensitivities and specificities. Sensitivity is the proportion of Thiazovivin nmr all deaths that were predicted to die Palbociclib by the test (cut-off), specificity is the proportion of survivors predicted to survive by the test. All analyses were conducted

using GraphPad Prism version 4.03 for Windows, GraphPad Software, San Diego, USA, www.graphpad.com and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prediction of outcome on the basis of the admission paraquat concentration was determined according to Senarathna et al. (2009). Paraquat exposure was confirmed in 20 patients who were eligible for inclusion; the other 6 patients were excluded. 14 of the 16 patients who were discharged alive were followed up in the community and three of these patients subsequently died. Altogether, seven patients died at 18 h, 48 h, 65 h, 11 days, 12 days, 15 days and 20 days after exposure. On the basis of the admission paraquat concentration, all actual deaths were predicted to die according to the Proudfoot nomogram (Eddleston et al., 2003). A total of 86 blood samples from different Reverse transcriptase time points were assayed, although in some cases the volume was too

small for every test to be conducted. Serial concentrations of creatinine and cystatin C for individuals are shown in Fig. 1a and b, respectively. In the case of creatinine and cystatin C, increasing concentrations during the first 24–48 h were observed which were suitable for further analyses. Because biochemical data from patients who died were unavailable beyond 75 h post-ingestion, all subsequent analyses in surviving patients were limited to data obtained within the same period. The plasma concentration of NGAL was measured in 14 patients and serial changes are shown in Fig. 1c. No relationship was observed that could be used to separate survivors from the four deaths captured in this study (which occurred 48 h, 65 h, 11 days and 12 days post-ingestion). Of these deaths, NGAL was not elevated in one patient while in the other three patients the highest concentration was 331 ng/mL and most were less than 100 ng/mL.

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