01) Notably, however, we did not observe any beneficial effect o

01). Notably, however, we did not observe any beneficial effect of RG and Rg3 treatment on scopolamine-induced lengthening of escape latencies of mice. Only the ginseol

k-g3-treated groups showed amelioration of scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze task, therefore, we can assume that the significant click here effects of ginseol k-g3 have been brought by Rg3 enrichment. Furthermore, it was observed during the probe trial session that the treatment groups were significantly different in terms of swimming times within the quadrant that normally contained the platform (target quadrant) [F (9, 95) = 37.93, p < 0.01] ( Fig. 5B). The mean swimming time within the platform quadrant in scopolamine-treated mice was significantly reduced compared

to vehicle-treated controls (p < 0.05). Treatment of ginseol k-g3-enriched fraction (50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) and donepezil (5 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the shortened swimming time within the platform quadrant induced by scopolamine. Interestingly, Rg3 also improved swimming time within the target quadrant. Together, these results demonstrate that Rg3 exerts beneficial effects in modulating long-term memory in scopolamine-treated mice. Furthermore, enrichment of Rg3 through the ginseol k-g3 preparation further increased the efficacy of Rg3. As shown in Fig. 5C, there were no differences in the swimming speeds among the groups during the probe trial CX 5461 ( Fig. 5C). This finding corroborates the observation that ginseol k-g3 does not affect locomotor and exploratory behaviors of mice. This is another attractive feature of ginseol k-g3 when used as a drug for AD, given the observation that muscle weakness or sedation has been associated with the use of recent AD therapies [8]. In light of the positive

effects of ginseol k-g3 on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice, we hypothesized Bupivacaine that the Rg3-enriched preparation enhanced long-term memory through the cholinergic nervous system. As shown in Fig. 6, donezepil, a widely used drug for AD, significantly inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 0.0769 μg/mL. RG, Rg3 and ginseol k-g3 also inhibited AChE activity but were not as potent as donezepil. However, the IC50 values of RG, Rg3 and ginseol k-g3 were found to be 231 μg/mL, 381 μg/mL and 337 μg/mL, respectively. Considering the weak potency of ginsenosides in inhibiting acetycholinesterase activity, ginseol k-g3 may have reversed scopolamine-induced amnesia through a mechanism not related with the cholinergic nervous system. Although basal forebrain cholinergic neurons appear to be targeted primarily in early stages of AD, other neurotransmitter systems can also be affected [39] and [40].

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