This is in accordance
with Koch & Ekelund (2005), who observed that different B. designis strains varied considerably in physiological parameters such as salt tolerance and growth rate. In fact, growth rate varied almost as much between different strains of B. designis as the whole range reported for heterotrophic flagellates. By contrast, overall average effects seemed to correlate extremely well with high-level taxonomy. Hence, the average protozoan response to metabolite-producing bacteria simply grouped them taxonomically in accordance with Adl et al. (2007) (Fig. 2). We emphasize that this correlation must be considered a preliminary hypothesis, and that more protozoan groups must be examined to confirm or reject this. In some cases, only a minor fraction of the protozoan cells survived and divided when transferred to a harmful bacterium. In case of some of the tested bacteria, the populations of C. longicauda, P. solitarium, Panobinostat purchase and H. vermiformis decreased for a period before the growth phase, and in case of the latter, only some of the replicates proliferated when grown on P. fluorescens CHA0. A possible explanation is that genetically based enzymatic detoxification
mechanisms must be induced before growth as discussed by Liu (2006). We notice that the taxonomic ranking in Fig. 2 largely reflects a division of the strains Dabrafenib research buy in two sets: the less susceptible, largely amoeboid Rhizaria and Amoebozoa and the more susceptible, non-amoeboid Excavata and Chromalveolata. Thus, we suggest that the property amoeboid or non-amoeboid may correlate with tolerance to metabolite-producing bacteria. Several highly motile, non-amoeboid protozoa, including Bodo and Spumella, can discriminate between different bacteria (Jürgens & DeMott, 1995; Boenigk et al., 2001; Pedersen et al., 2009). We thus put forward the hypothesis that the less-motile amoeboid forms must depend on the bacteria at their disposal to a higher degree, as they cannot easily move to new patches, and thus must have
a better-developed enzymatic detoxification. Therefore, they GPX6 can proliferate on a larger number of different food bacteria. This agrees with the prolonged lag phases that we observed in some of the Rhizaria and Amoebozoa. Further, it agrees with previous studies on pesticide tolerance in protozoa, where amoeboid protozoa proved less susceptible to toxic compounds (Ekelund et al., 1994, 2000; Ekelund, 1999). This hypothesis could be tested by feeding an amoeboid and a non-amoeboid protozoan with a mixture of two bacterial strains: one with and the other without secondary metabolites. Because protozoa perform important soil functions such as stimulation of nutrient turnover and plant growth (Ekelund & Rønn, 1994), it is essential to consider the potential harmful side effects of soil amendments on protozoa (Ekelund, 1999).