The most common drug combinations were: zidovudine+lamivudine+efavirenz (40 patients), stavudine+lamivudine+nelfinavir (13 patients), stavudine+lamivudine+nevirapine (12 patients), and zidovudine+lamivudine+indinavir (nine patients). Genotyping of HIV resistance was performed in all 138 study subjects using an in-house resistance assay. As described in the Materials and Methods and for logistical reasons (i.e. safe transport of high-quality samples to Sweden), the Atezolizumab cost majority of the sequences were obtained from PBMCs, whereas 42 resistance tests were performed using both PBMC DNA and plasma RNA. We compared the mutational resistance patterns in plasma and PBMCs for these 42 patients
and observed a high concordance (data not shown). Thus, 97% of the observed resistance
mutations were concordantly detected in plasma and PBMCs. All pol sequences were of HIV-1 genetic subtype B. We did not find any unexpected close clustering or identical sequences, which indicates that we did not experience problems with PCR contamination. At least one major drug resistance mutation was documented in 112 of the 138 patients (81%; 95% CI 79–91%) (Table 2). Resistance was more common in the samples from children (98%; 95% CI 87–99) than in those from adults (74%; 95% CI 64–82) (P=0.011). Resistance was also strongly related to route of transmission (P=0.010), which was not unexpected given the significant difference between adults and children. Resistance was significantly more prevalent in patients in whom treatment failure had been identified virologically as compared with immunologically (P<0.001) or clinically (P=0.019). Of the study subjects, 80 patients Selleck Ion Channel Ligand Library (58%) had started treatment after 2002 within the frame of the National HIV/AIDS cART Program and thus should
have received triple combination therapy in a systematic way. Sixty of these patients (75%) displayed drug resistance mutations after a median time on cART of 2.6 years. There were 58 study subjects (42%) who had begun therapy before 2002 (before the start of the National HIV/AIDS Program); they had a median time on ART of 6 years, and 52 of them (90%) showed drug resistance mutations. Of these patients, 52% had started with mono or dual therapy, whereas 48% had been started on a triple combination, but as described below almost all had had discontinuous ART and Interleukin-3 receptor many treatment changes. Start of therapy before or within the national treatment programme was significantly associated with the prevalence of resistance (P=0.035). Resistance was also strongly correlated to years on therapy (P=0.001). The patients had received a median of two (range one to six) different ART regimens (Table 2). Resistance was positively correlated with the number of treatment changes (P=0.005). Thus, resistance was documented in 20 of 30 patients (67%) who were on their first regimen vs. 15 of 15 patients (100%) who had undergone at least five treatment changes.