Metabolic factors also influence the development of liver disease

Metabolic factors also influence the development of liver disease in HIV-infected individuals. There is growing evidence of an increased prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among HIV-infected individuals [9,10]. CVD has become increasingly prevalent in HIV-infected patients [11] and the risk of CVD may be increased even further in individuals receiving

ART [12]. The evaluation of cardiovascular risk in people living with HIV involves the consideration of many factors, including the direct and indirect vascular 5-Fluoracil ic50 effects of HIV infection, ART, lipodystrophy, ageing, and exposure to cardiovascular risk factors – mainly lipid and glucose metabolic disorders. Individuals with HIV infection frequently have metabolic abnormalities that increase their risk of diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and CVD [13]. HIV has a pro-atherogenic effect on lipids and metabolism, which may be one of the factors contributing to the higher incidence of coronary heart disease, including early atherosclerosis, higher vascular event risk and advanced artery ageing, seen in the young HIV-infected population

[12,14]. Similarly, El-Sadr et al. (2005) [15], showed that the negative effect of HIV infection on lipid, glucose and insulin parameters is independent of ART and that changes in such parameters become more severe with advancing age. Prospective studies show that, when compared with people without any cardiovascular risk factors, the risk of developing atherosclerotic CVD in HIV-infected Alectinib in vitro individuals is increased twofold and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased almost fivefold in those with metabolic syndrome [16,17]. Abnormalities in blood glucose metabolism can be influenced by HIV treatment, lipid metabolism and coinfection with hepatitis. Impaired glucose tolerance is also common in HIV-infected individuals, affecting between 15 and 25% of patients [18]. Insulin resistance affects up to 50% of HIV-infected individuals

taking protease inhibitors (PIs) [18] and is more common where there are body fat changes such as peripheral fat loss (lipoatrophy) or abdominal obesity. There is also an increased prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in HIV-infected individuals with lipodystrophy [19]. Quinapyramine The risk of developing diabetes is also exacerbated by HCV infection. There is a fourfold increase in the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes and a fivefold increase in the likelihood of developing hyperglycaemia in patients who are coinfected with HCV compared with those with HIV infection alone [20]. The relative risk (RR) of developing diabetes in HIV-infected individuals is greatest in those aged between 18 and 24 years [21]. Hypertension appears to be linked to insulin resistance. It occurs more frequently among HIV-infected individuals, with a general prevalence of 12 to 21% [22], and frequently occurs in patients receiving ART [23].

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