Yang S, Land ML, Klingeman DM, Pelletier DA, Lu TS, Martin SL, Gu

Yang S, Land ML, Klingeman DM, Pelletier DA, Lu TS, Martin SL, Guo HB, Smith JC, Brown SD: A paradigm for industrial strain improvement identifies sodium acetate tolerance mechanisms in Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, in press. 33. Joachimsthal EL, Rogers PL:

Characterization of a high-productivity recombinant strain of Zymomonas mobilis for ethanol production from glucose/xylose mixtures. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2000, 84–86:343–356.PubMedCrossRef 34. Sambrook JaRD: Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (Third Edition). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory selleck chemicals llc Press; 2000. 35. Pelletier DA, Hurst GB, Foote LJ, Lankford PK, McKeown CK, Lu TY, Schmoyer DD, Shah MB, Hervey WJ, McDonald WH, et al.: A general system for studying protein-protein interactions in gram-negative bacteria. J Proteome Res 2008,7(8):3319–3328.PubMedCrossRef 36. Kovach ME, Elzer

PH, Hill DS, Robertson GT, Farris MA, Roop RM, Peterson KM: Four new derivatives of the broad-host-range cloning vector pBBR1MCS, carrying different antibiotic-resistance cassettes. Gene 1995,166(1):175–176.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions SY and SDB designed the experiment, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. SY constructed the plasmid pBBR3DEST42 and mutant strains and performed the Bioscreen assays. DAP and TSL constructed the expression vector p42-0347 and carried out the Western-blot. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Periodontitis is a complex process affecting tooth-supporting tissues [1]. The pathogenesis of periodontal diseases is largely attributed to localized inflammation, which results from interaction between host and microbial factors [2]. MRT67307 The most

common etiological agent of chronic periodontitis is Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobic black-pigmented bacterium [3]. On tooth surfaces, P. gingivalis is a constituent of the complex multispecies biofilm known as dental plaque, which has SPTBN5 properties of other biofilms found in the human body and in the environment. P. gingivalis can also colonize the tissues and cells of the gingival epithelium [4]. The bacterium can not only invade, but also accumulate inside gingival epithelial cells [5, 6]. Recent evidence demonstrates that the effect of periodontitis might have systemic consequences since the bacterium can spread systemically and locate to other tissues [7–10]. Bacteria living in a biofilm have a physiology different from that of planktonic cells and they generally live under nutrient limitation, including that of iron and heme. The uptake of heme as iron and protoporphyrin IX is an important mechanism by which P. gingivalis and other pathogenic bacteria obtain these compounds for their survival and their ability to establish an infection [11, 12]. Gram-negative bacteria utilize outer-membrane receptors to acquire heme from host hemoproteins directly or through a hemophore or lipoprotein and then transport the captured heme into the cell.

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