We enrolled 20 patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by diabetic nephropathy stage III to IV. Patients with diabetic nephropathy were classified by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan . The 20 patients consisted of 11 males and 9 females, ranging in age from 34 to 80 years [median age 61.6 years]. Patients previously treated with NSAIDs
or with a history of hypersensitivity to NSAIDs were excluded. We also excluded those who underwent knee or spine surgery, and patients with hematologic disease, liver cirrhosis, heart failure or malignancy. Adhesive skin patches containing 100 mg loxoprofen (LX-P; Loxonin® tape) Selleck Daporinad were applied to the back or knee of each patient, depending on the site of pain, for 24 h per day for five consecutive days (one patch per day). The degree of pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) , consisting of a straight 10-cm line, presenting a continuum of pain intensity, with ‘no pain’ at the bottom and ‘pain as bad as it can be’ at the top. Blood pressure was measured by an aneroid sphygmomanometer in the supine position before breakfast. The mean
blood pressure values of 2 consecutive days Wee1 inhibitor before treatment were used as the baseline and the mean blood pressure value of days 4 and 5 were used as the end-point. Blood and urine samples were obtained under fasting ACP-196 conditions at baseline and at the end of the 5-day study period. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcre) of each patient was calculated using the simplified equation of the Japanese Society of Nephrology, a version of the Modification of
Diet in Renal Disease study equation modified for Japanese patients . GFR was also estimated from serum cystatin C concentrations (eGFRcys), as recently recommended by the Japanese Society of Nephrology . HbA1c was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and expressed as the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) equivalent value (%), as recommended by the Japanese Diabetes Society. Serum concentrations of loxoprofen and its active, trans-OH metabolite were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) (Sumika Chemical Analysis Service, Ltd., Osaka, Japan). Urinary PGE2 concentrations 5-FU cost were measured by a chemiluminescence immunoassay (SRL, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shiga University of Medical Science (approval number: 22-83-1), and all participants provided written informed consent. Statistical analysis Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS, Tokyo, Japan). The distribution of variables was analyzed by checking histograms and normal plots of the data, and normality was tested using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk tests. Student’s t test was used to compare values at different time points.