Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in gestational age associated with each
interquartile this website range (IQR) increase in phthalate and BPA metabolite concentration.
Results: IQR increases in urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and BPA concentrations were associated with 4.2 and 1.1 d decreases in gestation, respectively. When stratified by gender, these alterations were found only in male infants.
Conclusions: We conclude that MEHHP and BPA (free+glucuronide) are associated with reductions in gestation, with effects observed only in males. Our findings are consistent with the idea that these agents induce gender-specific alterations in signaling via PPAR-gamma transcription factor, androgen precursors and/or inflammatory mediators during the initiation of labor.”
“Objective: Compare the anti-T. gondii IgG titer between HIV-1 infected and non HIV-1 infected pregnant women and report three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis resulting from reactivation of infection during pregnancy of HIV-1 infected women.
Methods: This study was conducted among 2,270 pregnant women with chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection (absence of IgM and presence of IgG), including 82 HIV-1 infected
and 2,188 non-infected women.
Results: The average anti-T. gondii IgG titer was 127 for the 2,188 non-HIV-1 infected women, and 227 for the 82 HIV-1-infected women (p = 0,007). These results suggested that higher anti-T. gondii IgG titers in HIV-1-infected pregnant women may CA-4948 not be indicative of an elevated risk for fetal infection. In this study three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis that resulted from infection reactivation during pregnancy MK-4827 research buy of HIV-1-infected women were manifested by fetal death, symptomatic infection, and infant without
symptoms, respectively. In two of these women, a ten-fold increase in IgG levels above used cutoff was observed (2,320 UI/mL and 3,613 UI/mL, respectively). In the third pregnant women anti-T. gondii IgG titers during pregnancy did not rise despite the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis (204; 198; 172 UI/mL).
Conclusions: Congenital toxoplasmosis resulting reactivation of infection during pregnancy in the studied group leads us to believe that it is a public health problem, especially in our population, in which seroprevalence of T. gondii infections is high. These findings also suggest that special attention is necessary during pregnancy, because the serologic diagnosis may not be indicative of toxoplasmosis reactivation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Macrophages play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis. Extracellular ATP induces macrophage bactericidal activity through activation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor.