Urbana isolate from the cattle feces LBH589 (chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid and mecillinam). Out
of the 383 isolates, 247 (64%) showed decreased sensitivity (i.e. were intermediate) to one or more antimicrobial, especially to streptomycin, tetracycline and sulphonamides (Table 1). Two isolates (S. Urbana and S. Waycross) had decreased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin and one (S. Urbana) to cefotaxime. The MIC values for the nalidixic acid resistant isolates were 0.023 μg/ml (S. Muenster) and 0.032 μg/ml (S. Urbana). Genetic relatedness by PFGE To determine the genotypic relatedness of the Salmonella isolates recovered from the cattle, poultry, swine and hedgehog feces and to compare them to human isolates from Burkina Faso , a total of 50 isolates were subjected to PFGE analysis with XbaI and BlnI restriction enzymes (Figure 1). Genetic relatedness of the isolates belonging to the same serotype ranged from approximately
70% to 100%. S. Typhimurium isolates from the poultry and human feces clustered closely together. S. Muenster isolates obtained from the cattle and swine feces were different, but both clustered closely together with some hedgehog isolates (Figure 1). Two S. Typhimurium var. Copenhagen isolates from the cattle feces clustered together with the S. Typhimurium isolates when XbaI was used, whereas all three were distinct from S. Typhimurium when BlnI was used. S. Albany isolates from the cattle and poultry feces clustered separately using both enzymes. Discussion We detected high prevalence of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica in the feces of the production animals slaughtered for human Selleckchem MK2206 consumption in Burkina Faso. Salmonella was especially common in the poultry
(55%) and cattle (52%) feces samples. The levels PAK5 of Salmonella in poultry can vary depending on the country, the nature of the production system and the specific control measures in place. In some EU countries chicken flocks are virtually free from Salmonella whereas in the US a contamination rate up to 60% was detected . In Japan, Salmonella was isolated from 36% of the broiler fecal samples . In Gambia, the detected rate of Salmonella in chicken feces was higher, 67% , than what we detected from the chicken feces. In comparison, only 11% of chicken reared at intensive poultry farms in Nigeria were found to be infected . The levels of Salmonella rates Combretastatin A4 reported in beef are usually lower than in chicken. Salmonella carriage was reported to be 1.4% in cattle in Great Britain  and 0.5% in Japan . In Ethiopia, 4% of the feces of slaughtered cattle were contaminated by Salmonella. The high rate of Salmonella detected in our study might be explained partly by the method used for strain isolation and partly by the animal husbandry practices. In Burkina Faso, cows and sheep mostly roam freely at pasture in the bush.