tropicalis (21%), C parapsilosis (21%) and C glabrata (5%) A s

tropicalis (21%), C. parapsilosis (21%) and C. glabrata (5%). A similar study conducted by Chang et al. [11] in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, detected the presence of C. albicans (45.8%), C. parapsilosis (34.4%), C. tropicalis (14.6%) and C. glabrata (5.2%) in venous blood samples from hospitalised patients. AG-14699 A current study conducted by Motta et al. [12] in the largest Brazilian teaching hospital complex demonstrated a similar profile, with C. albicans showing the highest incidence (52.2%), followed by C. parapsilosis (22.1%), C. tropicalis (14.8%) and C. glabrata (6.6%). The incidence of infections due to non-albicans Candida spp. is increasing[4] although

C. albicans remains the species of greatest clinical interest.[13] Currently,

there are about 17 species known to cause invasive or superficial mycoses. Based on a recent study, non-albicans Candida spp. are responsible for 35% to 65% of all candidiasis cases.[14] According to Glolo and Svidzinski [15], the most common species involved in the infectious processes are C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. kefyr, C. norvegensis, C. rugosa, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. ciferrii, C. haemulonii, C. lypolytica, C. pulcherrima, C. catenulata, C. utilis, C. viswanathii Decitabine datasheet and C. seylanoides. Many factors may predispose an individual to infection, among them the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, being a transplant patient, prolonged hospitalization and invasive surgical procedures such as the use of vesical catheters, venous catheters and mechanical ventilation.[15, 16] Other Palbociclib factors, such as extreme age, immunosuppression, renal failure, diabetes, chemotherapy,

radiotherapy, mucosal injury, haemodialysis, previous surgery, corticotherapy and use of dental prostheses, can also play a role.[17-19] The ability of Candida to cause infection also depends on its intrinsic virulence attributes.[20] Yeast of the genus Candida spp. possess several virulence-associated factors that ensure their ability to colonise and cause infection. These include the ability to adhere to host cells, promoting phenotypic changes, converging between yeast and pseudohyphae forms, the ability to form biofilms, producing substances harmful to cells, such as haemolysins, the ability to resist hydrogen peroxide and derivatives and the ability to produce and secrete hydrolytic enzymes. These factors can facilitate the promotion of infections in susceptible hosts and ensure microbial permanence to colonise or invade host tissues.[20-22] Candida albicans has well-known pathogenic potential, due to its ability to adhere to mucosal and epithelial cells, phenotypic transition with the production of hyphae that help tissue invasion, significant thermotolerance and the production of hydrolytic enzymes.[23, 24] In addition, C. albicans forms biofilms that adhere to and colonise surfaces.

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