TLR-2, -4, -5 and -11 are expressed on the cell surface while TLR

TLR-2, -4, -5 and -11 are expressed on the cell surface while TLR-3, -7, -8 and -9 locate in endosomal compartments. They detect a broad range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to recognize different microbial as a means to distinguish ‘non-self’ from ‘self’, and in some cases they also recognize endogenous ligands, which are considered damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) [2,3]. For example, TLR-4 can be activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, heat shock proteins and the anti-cancer drug taxol [4]. TLR-2 can be activated by the yeast cell wall component zymosan and lipoteichoic

acid from Gram-positive bacteria. TLR-3 is activated by double-stranded RNAs from viruses, and TLR-9 recognizes cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) DNA motifs present in viruses and bacteria [5]. It is well known that activation of TLRs on APCs initiates a cascade of intracellular signalling events, resulting ultimately in enhancing antigen presentation, the production and release of inflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of adhesion and co-stimulatory molecules on the cell surface of APCs as well as priming the adaptive immune system [6–8] (Fig. 1). However, selleck screening library recent studies have shown that T cells also express certain

types of TLRs [9,10]. TLRs can function as co-stimulatory receptors that complement T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signals to enhance effector T cell proliferation, survival and cytokine production [11]. TLRs Nitroxoline could thus be involved in the modulation of the adaptive immunity, including regulatory T cell (Treg)-mediated immune suppression and the induction

of different subtypes of effector T cells, particularly interleukin (IL)-17-producing cell [T helper type 17 (Th17)] differentiation in autoimmune diseases and other immune response processes [9]. In this review we summarize mainly recent advances about the novel mechanisms of TLRs for the homeostasis and function of different T cell subtypes. Engagement of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) with their microbial ligands induces specific downstream signalling events, and thereby provides immediate first-line protection of the host from invading pathogens. This is mediated by a number of components of innate systems, including activation of the complement pathway, phagocytosis of microbes, the release of direct anti-microbial mediators and production of cytokines and chemokines that, collectively, instruct mechanisms to combat infection [12]. Several PRRs have been characterized in a number of different hosts, such as pathogen-resistance proteins in plants [13,14], the Drosophila Toll protein [14,15] and TLRs in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals [15,16]. During the last decade, many microbial motifs sensed by TLRs and their impact on the induction of first-line host responses have been demonstrated [9,16–18].

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