This might indicate a central role for Smads in AD pathology wher

This might indicate a central role for Smads in AD pathology where they show a substantial deficiency and disturbed subcellular distribution in neurones. Still, the mechanisms driving relocation and decrease of neuronal Smad in AD are not well understood. However, Pin1, a peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans-isomerase, which allows isomerization of tau protein, was recently identified also controlling the fate of Smads. Here we analyse a possible role of Pin1 for Smad disturbances in AD. Multiple immunofluorescence labelling and confocal laser-scanning microscopy were performed to examine the localization of Smad and Pin1 in human control and AD hippocampi. Ectopic Pin1 expression

in neuronal cell cultures combined with Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation allowed studying Smad level and subcellular distribution. Luciferase reporter assays, electromobility shift, RNAi-technique and qRT-PCR revealed a potential transcriptional impact of Smad on Pin1 promoter. We report on a colocalization of phosphorylated Smad in AD with Pin1. Pin1 does not only affect Smad phosphorylation and stability but also regulates subcellular localization of Smad2 and supports its binding to

phosphorylated tau protein. Smads, in turn, exert a negative feed-back regulation on Pin1. Our data suggest both Smad proteins and Pin1 to be elements of a vicious circle with potential pathogenetic significance in AD. “
“Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is clinically defined as Rapamycin supplier a disorder selectively affecting the upper motor neuron (UMN) system. However, recently it has also been considered that PLS is heterogeneous in its clinical presentation. To elucidate the association of PLS, or disorders mimicking PLS, with 43-kDa TAR Docetaxel in vivo DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) abnormality, we examined two adult patients with motor neuron disease, which clinically was limited almost entirely to the UMN system, and was followed by progressive frontotemporal atrophy. In the present study, the distribution and severity, and

biochemical profile of phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43) in the brains and spinal cords were examined immunohistochemically and biochemically. Pathologically, in both cases, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-U) was evident, with the most severe degeneration in the motor cortex. An important feature in both cases was the presence of Bunina bodies and/or ubiquitin inclusions, albeit very rarely, in the well preserved lower motor neurons. The amygdala and neostriatum were also affected. pTDP-43 immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of many positively stained neuronal cytoplamic inclusions (NCIs) and dystrophic neurites/neuropil threads in the affected frontotemporal cortex and subcortical gray matter. By contrast, such pTDP-43 lesions, including NCIs, were observed in only a few lower motor neurons.

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