This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). At 6 days after initiation of co-mingling, all of the naive birds
in the wild-type group were positive, while 67% of the naive birds were positive in the KOp50Q group and 90% were positive in the complement group. The differences were not statistically significant. At 9 days after initiation of co-mingling, all the naive birds were positive in all three groups as determined by culturing cloacal swabs (Figure 4B). In addition to the cloacal swabs, cecal contents were collected from the naive birds necropsied on 9 and 12 days after initiation of co-mingling selleck products to determine colonization levels. At 9 days after initiation of co-mingling, the naive birds colonized by KOp50Q or by Comp50Q had fewer C. jejuni than the naive birds colonized by the wild-type strain (Figure 4C) and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). At 12 days after initiation of co-mingling, naive birds were colonized Captisol solubility dmso by KOp50Q or Comp50Q at similar levels to the wild-type group (p > 0.05). Figure 4 selleck kinase inhibitor Effect of mutating the cj1169c-cj1170c operon on Campylobacter colonization and transmission in birds. (A) Colonization levels in chickens inoculated with wild-type NCTC11168, KOp50Q, and Comp50Q, respectively. The birds were
necropsied on 9 and 12 DAI. Each symbol represents a single bird. Horizontal bars indicate the mean and standard error for each group. (B) Transmission of C. jejuni from seeder birds to naive (non-inoculated) birds. The percentage of naive birds positive for C. jejuni in each group was shown. (C) Cecal colonization
levels of the wild-type, KOp50Q, and Comp50Q in naive birds co-mingled with seeder birds. The birds were sacrificed at 9 and 12 days after initiation of co-mingling. Each symbol represents the colonization level in a single bird. The horizontal bars indicate the mean and standard error for each Rebamipide group. Discussion In this study, we determined the transcriptomic changes in C. jejuni in response to Ery treatment in an attempt to identify initial molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation to macrolide challenge and resistance development. Wild-type Ery-susceptible C. jejuni NCTC 11168 was exposed to different doses of Ery to reveal the adaptive responses to inhibitory and sub-inhibitory antibiotic challenges. In addition to NCTC 11168, its EryR derivative JL272 strain was also exposed to Ery at a concentration considered inhibitory for the wild-type (4 mg/L). A relatively short treatment period (30 min) was chosen in order to minimize possible collateral effects that might occur from prolonged drug treatment.