Therefore, titanium alkoxides, in this case TBT, can be readily g

Therefore, titanium alkoxides, in this case TBT, can be readily grafted onto the surface of GO through chemical adsorption at the molecular level [28]. On the other hand, it is widely known that titanium alkoxides BAY 11-7082 are extremely sensitive to water. Rapid decomposition

of the titanium precursor would result in the agglomeration of TiO2 crystals as well as hinder the homogeneous growth of TiO2 onto GO. Hence, EG and HAc were introduced into the mixture to co-control the hydrolysis rate of TBT [29]. In addition, the mixtures were also prechilled in an ice bath to further reduce the hydrolysis rate. During the solvothermal treatment, GO was reduced to rGO, and TiO2 nanoparticles formed on the rGO surface simultaneously. The preparation strategy is illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1 Procedure for the synthesis of rGO-TiO 2 nanocomposites. Characterization of reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 composites The surface morphology and structure of the rGO-TiO2 nanocomposite were characterized using FESEM and HRTEM. From Figure 2a, b, it is observed that the surface of rGO sheets was packed densely with TiO2 nanoparticles, which displayed a good combination of rGO and

TiO2. Despite that, MI-503 clinical trial the profile of a single TiO2 nanoparticle could be clearly distinguished, indicating that the aggregation of TiO2 was well prevented during the preparation process. The TiO2 particles were also found to exhibit a narrow size distribution with an average crystallite size of 12 nm. The corresponding

HRTEM images (Figure 2c, d) clearly showed the lattice fringes of rGO, which were parallel to the edges of the TiO2 nanoparticles. The lattice spacing of TiO2 was measured to be ca. 0.35 nm, which corresponds to the (101) plane of anatase TiO2 (JCPDS no. 2101272). The rGO sheets were composed of a mixture of two to five layers based on HRTEM observations. Figure 2 Electron microscopy of the rGO-TiO 2 composites. (a) FESEM image, (b, c) HRTEM images, and (d) enlarged HRTEM image of a selected rGO-TiO2 heterojunction. It is known that few-layer rGO sheets have the tendency to aggregate back to the graphite structure due to strong van der Waals interaction [30]. Therefore, the crystallization selleck chemicals llc of TiO2 on the surface of rGO was particularly helpful in overcoming this interaction, which could ultimately alleviate the agglomeration and restacking of the graphene sheets. In addition, the intimate connection would allow the electrons to transfer easily from TiO2 to rGO sheets during the photoexcitation process, which could significantly increase the separation of photoinduced charges and enhance the photocatalytic activity. Raman spectroscopy has been accepted to be a powerful and nondestructive tool to characterize the quality of graphitic materials.

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