There are several factors to be considered when deciding on the o

There are several factors to be considered when deciding on the optimum treatment or product for a patient

with haemophilia B. The therapeutic efficacy, the propensity to elicit an adverse event, costs of such treatments and the convenience in which they can be administered are all factors which need to be considered. The impact of these factors also varies among country, the individual physician and individual patient. The annual global survey conducted by the WFH in 2012 showed significant disparities of the levels of use between pdFIX concentrate and rFIX worldwide, with Western Europe displaying preponderance to recombinant products compared with elsewhere (Fig. 4). Since the late 1980s, the use of recombinant CFCs has progressively increased and, in some European countries, recombinant CFCs have almost completely replaced pdCFCs [68]. However, pdCFCs are still used, especially in many developing countries [69]. In current practice, the challenge now is striking the right balance in the modern era of haemophilia care. Widespread progress has been made in improving safety processes for the manufacture of pdCFCs since the epidemics of the 1970s and 1980s. As a result of these improvements, pdCFCs now have a strong safety record and a low risk of transfusion-mediated infection. In today’s practice, blood derivatives can be considered reasonably

safe of classical pathogens; however, the threat selleck chemicals llc of emerging pathogens is ever present. Escape variants of HIV and HBV Interleukin-2 receptor that evade standard donor screening methods have recently been described. Non-lipid-enveloped viruses less susceptible to

viral inactivation steps were found to be transmitted via plasma products. The continued rise in EIDs makes pathogen transmission difficult to anticipate. Although not a direct call to action, this serves as a warning against complacency and the haemophilia community should be constantly vigilant and prepared to react if new TT-EIDs are reported and theoretical concerns become a reality. This symposium provided a new demonstration that the clinical manifestations, PKs of FIX and optimum treatment strategies for haemophilia B still remain fascinating topics for research and discussion. As a result of the clinical and molecular features peculiar of haemophilia B, the practice of transferring evidence obtained in the setting of haemophilia A directly to patients with haemophilia B appears not to be ideal to define optimal treatment regimens. Additional investigations on predictors of bleeding diathesis and therapeutic trials specifically focused on FIX prophylaxis are awaited and should contribute to optimise the management of patients with FIX deficiency. A large body of evidence shows that PK parameters provide good surrogates for clinical efficacy, justifying their use for appropriate and evidence-based dosing. This concept is, however, also largely based on the experience with FVIII.

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