The present study was conducted to evaluate acetaldehyde found as

The present study was conducted to evaluate acetaldehyde found as a direct component of alcoholic Selleckchem NCT-501 beverages as an additional cancer risk factor to acetaldehyde formed from ethanol. Our aim was to provide experimental data to substantiate the theoretical calculations mentioned above. In addition, we focused on differences between sub-groups

of alcoholic beverages, as there are some epidemiological findings pointing to an increased risk of oesophageal cancer due to consumption of specific alcoholic beverages [31]. Methods Experimental design and sampling The experiments were conducted within the framework of our function as governmental food and alcohol control institution, which includes a chemical-toxicological as well as an organoleptical evaluation of products by a trained panel of assessors. The experiments included only products legally sold on the market of the European Union (EU). Furthermore, the study only included products that had to be organoleptically tested anyway for other reasons, e.g. to check compliance with EU and national selleckchem regulations (such as regulation (EC) 110/2008 [32]). The CVUA Karlsruhe is permanently permitted

by German federal state law to conduct sensory testing of alcoholic beverages in its capacity as governmental control laboratory [33]. Nevertheless, we decided to conduct the study according to the Helsinki Declaration, and informed consent was obtained from every participant (which is normally unnecessary for our taste panels). All assessors met the following criteria: (i) 20 to 60 years old; (ii) no health problems and not taking drugs; (iii) non smokers; (iv) non-denture wearers; (v) no dental problems (annual dentist visits, twice daily toothbrush use). before The alcoholic beverages chosen for our experiments were taken from retail trade by governmental food inspectors. The beverages were used as such, no acetaldehyde or any other additives were added to the alcoholic beverages (with the exception of distilled water

to dilute some of the beverages). All beverages were checked for compliance with European food law [32]. The alcoholic strength in the beverages was determined according to Ref. [34], acetaldehyde in the beverages was checked according to Refs. [35, 36]. The assessors were asked to be abstinent for at least one day prior to the experiment. All experiments were conducted more than 1 hour after the last meal or drink to ensure there is no contamination of saliva with interfering this website substances. The assessors were also asked to uphold their standard dental hygiene (twice daily toothbrush use), but not to use alcohol-containing mouthwashes, and not to ingest alcohol-containing foodstuffs during the trial period.

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