The mlrA of EMS may have been obtained from one or more of
the Sphingopyxis species. Microcystin-degrading bacteria, which possess mlr genes, may play an important role in decreasing microcystin in Lake Taihu and other water bodies. Because mlrB is probably silent, the mlrA gene is a better molecular probe than mlrB for detecting or monitoring dynamics of microcystin-degrading bacteria. This research was supported by the State Key Basic Research and Development Plan of China (2008CB418002), the National Water Science and Technology Projects (2009ZX07101-013-02) and the Talent Scientist Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (082303-1-501). Fig. S1. Neighbor-joining trees constructed from the 16S rRNA gene (left) and the mlrA gene sequences (right) of microcystin-degrading MLN2238 ic50 bacteria. Bootstrap values are indicated at nodes. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content Alisertib order or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“The transition metal iron is an important element for the sustenance of life – it can function
either as an electron acceptor or as a donor and serves as a cofactor in many enzymes activities. The cytoplasmic NAD(P)H-dependent ferric reductase in Thermus scotoductus SA-01 shares high sequence and structural similarity to prokaryotic thioredoxin reductases. Here Wilson disease protein we report the sequence of the ferric reductase (which is typically annotated as a thioredoxin reductase-like protein) and a comparative
kinetic study with the thioredoxin reductase from SA-01. Structurally, the most noteworthy difference, immediately apparent from the protein sequence, is the absence of the disulphide redox centre in the ferric reductase. This is the first report relating the attributes of such a redox protein to its ability to reduce a ferric substrate. The transition metal, iron, is an important element for most organisms and is required for various physiological functions such as transport of molecular oxygen, involvement in electron transport and a cofactor for enzymes, and functions either as an electron donor or as an acceptor in microbial energy conservation. The dissimilatory reduction of ferric iron is considered the oldest form of respiration, thus providing an electron sink while the earth’s atmosphere was still anoxic (Vargas et al., 1998). Ironically, with the arrival of oxygen, iron posed a new threat to aerobically respiring organisms. Various redox-active biomolecules have been implicated in the cytotoxic effect of iron in aerobic respiring organisms by reducing the cellular ferric iron, which can then participate in the Fenton reaction. The successive univalent reduction of molecular oxygen, during aerobic respiration, generates superoxide (O2·−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl (HO·) radicals, with the latter being most cytotoxic.