The mechanism underlying the pathogenic role of CD103+ DCs in AN mice may relate to their ability to activate CD8 T cells. LIN YI-TING1,4, WU PING-HSUN3,5, KUO MEI-CHUAN3,6, HUANG CHIA-TSUAN1,2, CHEN HUNG-CHUN3,6 1Department of Family Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 4Department of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 5Graduate Institute of Medicine,
College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 6Faculty of Renal Care, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, buy PS-341 Kaohsiung, Taiwan Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increase all-cause of mortality and cardiovascular events in general population. This population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the mortality and cardiovascular risks of COPD among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving hemodialysis. Methods: From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database,
83,509 Taiwanese hemodialysis patients were screened for eligibility between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2006. COPD was defined by a specific diagnosis code and COPD-related medications. After excluding RGFP966 mouse patients age less than 40 year-old and receiving renal transplantation before and after enrollment, we included a total of 13,592 patients who were diagnosed COPD, and matched them 1:1 with 13,592 controls by age,
gender, urbanization, and economic Neratinib purchase status. Participants were followed up for the occurrence of death, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and ischemic stroke, or until 2008. Results: From 1998 to 2008, the 10-year cumulative incidences of death in the COPD and comparison cohorts were 33.74% and 33.84%, as Incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.969 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.930–1.009); those of ACS were 20.63% and 6.45%, as IRR 3.013 (95% CI, 2.793–3.251); and those for ischemic stroke were 7.98% and 3.18%, as IRR 2.410 (95% CI, 2.156–2.694). As compared with the comparison cohort, hemodialysis patients with COPD was associated with multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of 1.050 (95% CI, 0.969–1.137) for death, 1.183 (95% CI, 1.041–1.345) for ACS, and 1.217 (95% CI, 1.013–1.463) for ischemic stroke after adjusting comorbid disorders and drugs prescription during follow up. Conclusion: Hemodialysis patients with COPD are associated with increased cardiovascular risks but not all-cause of mortality.