The degree and pattern of staining and inflammation was then eval

The degree and pattern of staining and inflammation was then evaluated. Furthermore, secreted Ro52 protein was measured in saliva and serum samples from the same individuals through a catch-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ro52 was highly expressed in all the focal infiltrates in pSS patients. Interestingly, a significantly higher degree of Ro52 expression

in ductal epithelium was observed in the patients compared to the non-pSS controls (P < 0·03). Moreover, the degree of ductal epithelial expression of Ro52 correlated with the level of inflammation (Spearman's r = 0·48, P < 0·0120). However, no secreted Ro52 protein MG-132 cost could be detected in serum and saliva samples of these subjects. Ro52 expression in ductal epithelium coincides with degree of inflammation and is up-regulated in pSS patients. High expression of Ro52 might result in the breakage of tolerance and generation of Ro52 autoantibodies in genetically susceptible individuals. We conclude that the up-regulation of Ro52 in ductal epithelium might be a triggering factor for disease progression in SS. “
“The initiation of CD8+ T cell (CTL) immune responses can occur via cross-priming. Recent data suggested a relationship between cross-presentation

and immunodominance of epitope-specific T cells. To test this association, Selumetinib concentration we evaluated the efficacy of cross-presentation for several virus epitopes Doxorubicin research buy in vitro and examined if this can be extrapolated in vivo. Employing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), we demonstrate that the cross-presentation and cross-priming of LCMV antigens were dominated by NP396, but not NP205 when analyzing the LCMV-NP. Although with LCMV-GP, cross-presentation was dominated by GP276, and cross-priming was dominated by GP33. Importantly, although NP396 was significantly more efficient

than GP33 in cross-presentation, cross-priming of their specific CTL was comparable. In a subsequent virus challenge after cross-priming, GP33-specific CTL dominated the response. Accordingly, based on our data, the ability of viral epitopes to be cross-presented in vitro does not entirely reflect what would occur in cross-priming. Thus, weak cross-presenting antigens may still cross-prime an efficient CTL response depending on other in vivo elements such as the naïve T-cell precursor frequencies. The priming of CTL is initiated by BM-derived professional APC (pAPC) 1–3, and is achieved via endogenous “direct-presentation” and exogenous “cross-presentation” 4–6. The contribution of multiple epitopes from viral proteins to the cross-presentation pathway after infections is not well understood.

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