The degree and pattern of staining and inflammation was then evaluated. Furthermore, secreted Ro52 protein was measured in saliva and serum samples from the same individuals through a catch-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ro52 was highly expressed in all the focal infiltrates in pSS patients. Interestingly, a significantly higher degree of Ro52 expression
in ductal epithelium was observed in the patients compared to the non-pSS controls (P < 0·03). Moreover, the degree of ductal epithelial expression of Ro52 correlated with the level of inflammation (Spearman's r = 0·48, P < 0·0120). However, no secreted Ro52 protein MG-132 cost could be detected in serum and saliva samples of these subjects. Ro52 expression in ductal epithelium coincides with degree of inflammation and is up-regulated in pSS patients. High expression of Ro52 might result in the breakage of tolerance and generation of Ro52 autoantibodies in genetically susceptible individuals. We conclude that the up-regulation of Ro52 in ductal epithelium might be a triggering factor for disease progression in SS. “
“The initiation of CD8+ T cell (CTL) immune responses can occur via cross-priming. Recent data suggested a relationship between cross-presentation
and immunodominance of epitope-specific T cells. To test this association, Selumetinib concentration we evaluated the efficacy of cross-presentation for several virus epitopes Doxorubicin research buy in vitro and examined if this can be extrapolated in vivo. Employing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), we demonstrate that the cross-presentation and cross-priming of LCMV antigens were dominated by NP396, but not NP205 when analyzing the LCMV-NP. Although with LCMV-GP, cross-presentation was dominated by GP276, and cross-priming was dominated by GP33. Importantly, although NP396 was significantly more efficient
than GP33 in cross-presentation, cross-priming of their specific CTL was comparable. In a subsequent virus challenge after cross-priming, GP33-specific CTL dominated the response. Accordingly, based on our data, the ability of viral epitopes to be cross-presented in vitro does not entirely reflect what would occur in cross-priming. Thus, weak cross-presenting antigens may still cross-prime an efficient CTL response depending on other in vivo elements such as the naïve T-cell precursor frequencies. The priming of CTL is initiated by BM-derived professional APC (pAPC) 1–3, and is achieved via endogenous “direct-presentation” and exogenous “cross-presentation” 4–6. The contribution of multiple epitopes from viral proteins to the cross-presentation pathway after infections is not well understood.