Ten thousand iNKT cells were collected in RLT buffer with 1% of β

Ten thousand iNKT cells were collected in RLT buffer with 1% of β-mercaptoethanol. mRNA was isolated using RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) and reverse transcripted with Superscript III (Invitrogen). Quantitative-PCR was realized with SYBR Green (Roche) and analyzed with LightCycler 480 (Roche). Pancreatic islet cells were prepared as previously described 53. Pancreata were perfused with a solution containing collagenase P (Roche), dissected free from surrounding tissues and digested at 37°C for 10 min. Islets were then purified click here on a Ficoll gradient and disrupted by adding cell dissociation buffer (GIBCO) for 10 min at 37°C. iNKT cells from spleen and mesenteric LNs of CD45.1+/+ CD90.1+/+

Vα14 Cα−/− NOD mice were enriched by negative selection and then sorted as CD4− or CD4+ CD1d-αGalCer tetramer+ cells. Sorted cell purity was >96%. CD62L+ BDC2.5 T cells were isolated from CD45.2+/+

CD90.1+/+ BDC2.5 Cα−/− NOD mice. Splenocytes were enriched in T cells by negative selection and CD62L+ cells were positively selected using biotinylated anti-CD62L mAb and Streptavidin microbeads (Miltenyi Biotec). CD62L+ BDC2.5 T-cell purity was >92%. Similar procedures were used for the reconstitution with NK1.1− or NK1.1+ CD4− iNKT cells. Donor cells were obtained from NK1.1 Vα14 Cα−/− NOD mice. At AT9283 2 wks of age, CD45.1+/+ CD90.1+/+ Cα−/− NOD mice were reconstituted i.v with 1.5×106 CD4− or CD4+ iNKT cells from CD45.1+/+ CD90.2+/+ Vα14 Cα−/− mice. Mice were injected i.p with PK136 mAb (50 μg/mouse of on days 15, 17, 26 and with 100 μg/mouse on day 32). At 6 wks of age, recipient mice were injected i.v with 104 naïve CD62L+ BDC2.5 T cells from CD45.2+/+ CD90.1+/+ BDC2.5 Cα−/− mice. Diabetes analysis was also performed in mice reconstituted with NK1.1− or NK1.1+ CD4− iNKT cells. In some experiments mice were injected i.p with 200 μg of blocking anti-mouse IL-17 Ab (CA028_00511) or isotype control (101.4) on days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 after BDC2.5 Protein kinase N1 T cell transfer (day 0). Reagents were provided by UCB Celltech. Overt diabetes was

defined by two consecutive positive glucosuria tests and glycemia >200 mg/dL. Statistical analyses were performed with the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. The log-rank test was used for the comparison of diabetes incidence. The authors thank UCB Celltech for the generous gift of anti-IL-17 and isotype control reagents, L. Breton and the staff of the mouse facility for help in animal care and L. Ghazarian and J. Diana for critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by funds from the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale and the Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, grant from ANR-09-GENO-023 to A. L.. Anne-Sophie Gautron and Yannick Simoni were supported by doctoral fellowships from the Ministère de l’Education Nationale et de la Recherche et Technique and from Région Île-de-France. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no commercial or financial conflict of interest.

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