Results We initially tested the innate resistance

Results We initially tested the innate resistance https://www.selleckchem.com/products/sbe-b-cd.html of gp91phox KO mice to intraperitoneal infection with C. immitis. The number of CFU/lung was determined by quantitative culture on day 14. Figure 1A shows the results. The gp91phox KO mice had Nepicastat ic50 slightly lower numbers of CFU/lung compared to the B6 controls (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U). We then compared the innate and acquired resistance of C57Bl/6 mice and the gp91phox KO mice to intraperitoneal challenge with C. immitis. Animals were immunized with Ag2/PRA as described in Methods. They, and non-immune controls were

challenged with 150 arthroconidia I.P. and sacrificed 14 days later. The number of CFU/lung was determined by quantitative culture (Figure 1B). Once again the number of CFU/lung was slightly lower in the unimmunized phox KO mice compared to C57Bl/6 controls. More striking

was the observation that both types of mice were completely protected by immunization. Figure 1 The number of CFU of Coccidioides found in the lungs of gp91 phox KO and B6 controls 14 days after intraperitoneal infection. Each symbol represents a mouse; the line represents the median. Panel A: non-immune mice. Panel B: Immune and non-immune mice of the two strains are compared. Representative images of the histological evaluation of the infected lungs in non-immune B6 and gp91phox KO mice are shown in Figure 2. The most striking difference is that the B6 mouse lungs contain more mature spherules than the gp91phox KO mouse lungs do, as would be expected from the quantitative culture data. In both mouse strains the predominant cellular response is neutrophilic. The JPH203 research buy inflammatory foci are larger in the gp91phox mice than in the controls, despite the smaller number of spherules found in these lesions. Figure 2 Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of lungs from gp91 phox KO mice (panels A and B) and B6 mice (panels C and D) 14 days after intraperitoneal infection. Panels A and C: 2X magnification: panels B and D: 40X magnification. The arrowheads in panel B and D indicate spherules.

We also measured the amount of mRNA coding for selected cytokines in the lungs of B6 and gp91phox KO mice infected with Coccidioides (Figure 3). We found that the infected gp91phox KO mice expressed higher mRNA levels for all the cytokines Metalloexopeptidase tested compared to the B6 mice, except for IL-4 and TGF-β1. The most striking differences between the levels of mRNA in the gp91phox KO and B6 mice were in TNF-α (p = 0.012), interferon-γ (p = 0.008), IL-17α (p = 0.002), IL-22 (p = 0.003) and IL-23 (p = 0.002). Figure 3 The amount of mRNA for the indicated cytokines found in the lungs of gp91 phox KO and B6 control mice 14 days after intraperitoneal infection. The bars represent the mean and the error bars the standard deviation. The amount of each of the cytokines in the uninfected B6 mice was set at 1. We wanted to compare the gp91phox KO and control mice in the more physiologic intranasal model of infection.

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