Reshchikov MA, Sabuktagin S, Johnstone DK, Morkoc H: Transient ph

Reshchikov MA, Sabuktagin S, Johnstone DK, Morkoc H: Transient photovoltage in GaN as measured by atomic force microscope tip. J Appl Phys 2004, 96:2556. 10.1063/1.1774245CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions PG and

KR fabricated the porous silicon and Ni-filled porous silicon samples, and PC and YS performed the surface photovoltage transient measurements. All authors discussed the data and prepared the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background In the recent years, noble metal nanoparticles, especially gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), have attracted great interest and wide attention. AuNPs have proven to be a versatile platform in many areas Akt inhibitor such as catalysis, biosensing, VX-661 optoelectronics, biological imaging, and therapeutic techniques [1–3]. Recently,

the preparation and potential applications of AuNPs are becoming increasingly popular among researchers due to their distinctive optical properties, particularly tuneable surface plasmon resonance. Up to now, a number of chemical and physical methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles have been reported, such as chemical reduction, electro-reduction, photo-reduction, and heat evaporation [4–6]. In most cases, the synthetic processes either involve the use of borohydride, hydrazine, citrate, etc. or require rather complex procedures or rigorous conditions, followed by surface modification with some protecting ligands like thiols and oleic acid. Thus, both toxicity and high cost make these materials less promising in industrial and biological applications. To address these problems, biosynthesis of biological materials has received considerable attention. Compared

to traditional methods, biosynthesis has many advantages by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals in the process and eliminating risks in industrial, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. To date, a broad range of biological materials has been introduced for the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles including phytochemicals (polyphenol buy Erastin extract, catechin, lemongrass leaf extract, aloe extract, and fruit extracts) [7–13], microorganisms (bacteria and yeast) [14–16], protein [17, 18], peptide [19, 20], and polysaccharide [21–24]. Among the various biological materials, polysaccharides are emerging as an important natural resource for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. In such processes, polysaccharides usually act as a reducing agent or stabilizer because of their special structure and properties. Since Raveendran et al. proposed a completely green method for preparation of silver nanoparticles with starch [23], many researchers have investigated the effects and mechanism of various polysaccharides on the formation of metal nanoparticles, such as cellulose, chitosan, alginic acid, hyaluronic acid, and agarose [21–25].

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