Polymers (methylcellulose, sodium alginate, and chitosan) were precipitated on the surface of cefpodoxime proxetil using sodium citrate and calcium chloride as salting-out agents. The pure drug and the prepared microparticles with
different concentrations of polymer (0.05-1.0%) were characterized in terms of solubility, drug content, particle size, thermal CCI-779 datasheet behavior (differential scanning calorimeter), surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy), in vitro drug release, and stability studies. The in vivo performance was assessed by pharmacokinetic study. The dissolution studies demonstrate a marked increase in the dissolution rate in comparison with pure drug. The considerable improvement in the dissolution rate of cefpodoxime proxetil from optimized microparticle was attributed to the wetting effect of polymers, altered surface morphology, and micronization of drug particles. The optimized microparticles exhibited excellent stability on storage at accelerated condition. The in vivo studies revealed that the optimized formulations provided improved pharmacokinetic parameter in rats as compared with pure drug. The particle size of drug was drastically reduced during formulation process of microparticles.”
Antibody responses to malaria antigens reflect exposure to parasites, and seroprevalence correlates with malaria transmission intensity. Antibodies are
routinely measured in sera or on dried blood spots but a non-invasive method PR-171 clinical trial would HSP990 provide extra utility in sampling general populations. Saliva is already in use in the detection of plasma-derived IgM and IgG to viral infections. In this study, antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens were compared between blood and saliva samples from the same individuals in unlinked surveys conducted in Tanzania and The Gambia.
Methods: In Tanzania, 53 individuals provided paired fingerprick blood and saliva sample using two commercially available sampling devices. In the Gambia, archived plasma and saliva samples collected from 200 children in the Farafenni area in a cross-sectional survey were analyzed.
IgG antibodies against P. falciparum antigens, Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP-1(19)) and Apical membrane Antigen (AMA-1) were measured by ELISA in paired saliva and blood samples from both sites. Antibody levels were compared as continuous optical density (OD) values and by sero-positivity.
Results: Significant correlations between saliva and plasma antibody levels were seen in Tanzania for both antigens, AMA-1(r(2) range 0.93 to 0.89, p < 0.001) and MSP-1(19) (r(2) range 0.93 to 0.75, p < 0.001), with a weaker correlation for results from The Gambia (r(2)range 0.64 to 0.63, p < 0.01).