P berghei and P yoelii yoelii GFP 17XNL infections Either wild-

P. berghei and P. yoelii yoelii GFP 17XNL infections Either wild-type or GFP-P. berghei (ANKA 2.34 strain) [27] and the GFP-P. yoelii yoelii 17X nonlethal transgenic strain [28] were maintained by serial passage in 3- to 4-week-old female BALB/c mice or as EPZ 6438 frozen stocks. Mice parasitemias were monitored by light microscopy using air-dried blood smears that were methanol fixed and stained with 10% Giemsa. Female mosquitoes (4–5 days old)

were fed on gametocytemic mice 2–3 days after blood inoculation from VX-770 research buy infected donor mice when parasitemias were between 5–10%. Mosquitoes infected with P. berghei or P. yoelii were kept at 21°C or 24°C, respectively, and midguts dissected 6–7 days post infection. Infection levels were determined by fluorescent (live oocyst) and light (melanized parasites) microscopy. The distribution of oocyst numbers in the different experimental groups was compared using the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test. Mosquito midgut genomic DNA extraction for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) Individual midguts (without blood) were placed into microcentrifuge tubes containing 10 μl of HotSHOT alkaline lysis reagent (25 mM NaOH, 0.2 mM EDTA, pH 12.0) [29]. Selleckchem Eltanexor The tubes were boiled for 5 min and immediately placed on ice; 10 μl of HotSHOT neutralizing reagent (40 mM Tris-HCl, pH 5.0) was added to each tube. The samples were centrifuged

and stored at -20°C. Determination of P. berghei infection by qPCR For the GSTT1 silencing experiment, mice were infected wild-type P. berghei Phospholipase D1 (non-GFP parasites, Anka 2.34 parasites),

and the level of infection in mosquitoes was determined by qPCR 6 days post infection. Genomic DNA was obtained from infected midguts, and the abundance of P. berghei 28S RNA relative to An. gambiae S7 ribosomal protein was determined. The DyNAmo SYBR Green qPCR Master mix (Finnzymes, Espoo, Finland) was used to amplify the genomic DNA, and samples were run on a MJ Research Detection system according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). P. berghei 28S RNA primer sequence (5/ to 3/), Fw-GTGGCCTATCGATCCTTTA and Rev: 5/GCGTCCCAATGA TAGGAAGA). Two μl of midgut genomic DNA was used to detect the number P. berghei 28S gene copies and 1 μl to determine the copies of An. gambiae ribosomal protein S7 gene in a 20-μl PCR reaction. All P. berghei 28S values shown were then normalized relative to the number of copies of S7 in the sample. The distribution of parasite/midgut genome in control (dsLacZ injected) and dsGSTT2 silenced were compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Experimental infection of An. gambiae mosquitoes with P. falciparum An. gambiae (G3) female mosquitoes were infected with P. falciparum by feeding them gametocyte cultures using an artificial membrane feeding system. The P.

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