McClure et al75 found that sad, happy, and fearful peer facial ex

McClure et al75 found that sad, happy, and fearful peer facial expressions were misinterpreted more often by children with bipolar disorder in comparison with children with anxiety disorders or subjects with no psychiatric diagnosis. In addition, when viewing neutral faces, youth with bipolar disorder perceived more hostility and experienced more anxiety in comparison with youth without a psychiatric disorder.76 In another study, children and adolescents with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical bipolar disorder were more likely

to mistakenly characterize facial emotions than youths without a psychiatric disorder.77 Moreover, the pediatric patients with bipolar disorder were less likely to choose appropriate responses when presented with interpersonal situation vignettes when compared with a healthy control group.77 These emotional and social interpretation deficits may Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be due to neural circuitry differences. For example, Rich et al78 found that youths with bipolar disorder have less functional connectivity in areas that may be involved in processing facial expressions and emotional stimuli. These areas include

the neural circuitry between the left amygdala and areas bordering the right posterior cingulate/precuncus and the right fusiform gyrus/parahippocampal gyrus. Other studies have found that youths with bipolar disorder Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical exhibit less cognitive flexibility in adapting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to changing contingencies in cognitive testing.77,79 Pavuluri et al80 found evidence to suggest that activation patterns in brain regions are different in pediatric bipolar patients in comparison with healthy controls when subjects observed angry and happy faces. These Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical activation differences implicate a disturbance in affect neurocircuitry which may contribute to emotional dysregulation

and social cognitive deficits in youths with bipolar disorder.80 An understanding of these emotional and cognitive processing findings may have clinical relevance, as they might allow clinicians to BLU9931 in vivo direct a portion of their psychotherapy to address about interpersonal skills and allow educators to modify lesson plans in order to accommodate the possible cognitive deficits. Neurochemical differences Similarly to serotonergic dysfunction observed in depressive conditions, using positron emission tomography (PET), a lower serotonin transporter binding potential (proportional to serotonin transporter number) was found in adults with bipolar disorder in comparison with adults with no psychiatric conditions.81 In addition, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), elevated gray matter lactate and y-aminobutyric acid levels have been found in adults with bipolar disorder in comparison with adults without a psychiatric diagnosis.

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