Many pathogens use antigenic variability of the most immunogenic

Many pathogens use antigenic variability of the most immunogenic regions on their surface to avoid host antibody-based defences. Thus, antibody-inducing vaccines have a much longer tradition in focusing on conserved regions 33. Indeed, even the most variable protein, Env, of HIV-1 has invariable click here regions, of which the most conserved is the CD4 receptor-binding site 34. Recently, there has been tremendous progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying potent and broad HIV-1 neutralization 35, 36. The roadblock of efficiently inducing such specificity by active vaccination remains, but conserved regions are once again at the centre of attention. This article

has mainly concentrated on the theoretical arguments for and against the various HIV-1 immunogen platforms currently under evaluation; it provides only limited experimental evidence because this is only just starting to emerge. Vaccine success

will depend significantly, but not exclusively on immunogens; it will also be critical to factor in how these immunogens are presented to the immune system, i.e. the choice of vaccine vectors and vector combinations, adjuvantation and routes of delivery 37. Which vaccine strategy is the best can be only decided by protection of humans against HIV-1 infection and/or AIDS and this, in RGFP966 mw turn, can only be answered in efficacy trials. These are expensive, but highly informative. Moreover, the very last

one, RV144 38, even provided a moderate reason for optimism. Last but not least, vaccines will not be discovered without continued financial and political support, new scientific discoveries and human will and persistence. World Thymidylate synthase AIDS day (http://www.worldaidsday.org/) on 1 December offers the perfect opportunity to ensure that such issues are highlighted globally. “
“Interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70 and IL-23 are bioactive cytokines and their biological functions are becoming clear. Increased expression of IL-7 in the central nervous system as well as in peripheral immune cells is associated with multiple sclerosis and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Here, we describe the induction of IL-7 in primary mouse and human microglia, BV-2 microglial cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages and astrocytes by IL-12p70. Interestingly, IL-12 strongly induced the expression of IL-7 whereas IL-23 and other p40 family members remained weak inducers of IL-7 in these cell types. Consistently, IL-12, but not IL-23 and other p40 family members, induced IL-7 promoter-driven luciferase activity in microglial cells. Among various stimuli tested, IL-12 emerged as the most potent stimulus followed by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and HIV-1 gp120 in inducing the activation of IL-7 promoter in microglial cells.

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