Later, Grace’s medium with 10% fetal bovine serum, FBS, (Lonza) w

Later, Grace’s medium with 10% fetal bovine serum, FBS, (Lonza) was used for the isolation of other biovars. Since streptomycetes selleck chemicals growing in liquid medium form compact colonies, the following strategy was applied to isolate a pure culture: single colonies were transferred into individual wells of 24-well plate containing 500 μl fresh medium and were disrupted

by pipetting. After that, bacteria were incubated again until new micro-colonies appeared and the procedure was repeated three times. Finally, bacterial biomass was stored at −80°C with glycerol (15-20%) added to liquid medium. Bacterial isolates were named with the first three letters of the host species name, plus the running number for the host specimen according to our internal collection, and a number referring to the replicate isolate (e.g. alb539-2 refers to isolate 2 of the Philanthus albopilosus specimen no. 539). DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and identification of isolates Bacteria grown in appropriate liquid medium were collected in 1.5 ml tubes by centrifugation at 5000 × g for 1 min at room temperature and washed twice with sterile PBS (137 mM NaCl; 2.7 mM KCl; 10 mM

Na2HPO4; 2 mM KH2PO4). The bacterial Ibrutinib datasheet biomass was lysed as described elsewhere [39]: briefly, the biomass was resuspended in 500 μl TE25S buffer (25 mM Tris (pH 8.0), 25 mM EDTA (pH 8.0), 0.3 M sucrose) with lysozyme (2 mg/ml) and incubated at 37°C for 1 h. Afterwards, 50 μl proteinase K (20 mg/ml) and 30 μl SDS (10%) were added, mixed and the samples were incubated at 55°C with agitation for 20 min. 100–200 μl Protein Precipitation Solution Idelalisib cell line (Qiagen) was added to the transparent lysate, which was then thoroughly mixed and centrifuged at >16,000 × g for 10 min at 4°C to sediment proteins. The supernatant was transferred into a fresh tube, and an equal volume (i.e. 600–700 μl) of isopropanol was

added; the solution was thoroughly mixed and the tube was incubated at −20°C for ≥30 min, followed by centrifugation at ≥16,000 × g for 10 min to sediment DNA. The DNA pellet was then washed twice with 500 μl EtOH (70%), air-dried, and resuspended in EB buffer. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments were amplified with the primers fD1 (5’-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3’) and rP2 (5’-ACGGCTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3’); gyrase subunit A (gyrA) gene fragments were amplified with gyrA-5F (5’-AACCTGCTGGCCTTCCAG-3’) and gyrA-5R (5’-AACGCCCATGGTGTCACG-3’); gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene fragments were amplified with primers gyrB-F1 (5’-GAGGTCGTGCTGACCGTGCTGCA-3’) and gyrB-R3 (5’-SAGCTTGACCGAGATGATCG-3’) [28].

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