, Lake Success, NY). Following the procedures described by Bergstrom et al. , mTOR phosphorylation participants were instructed to maintain a pedaling cadence of 70–75 revolutions per minute (RPM) at an initial workload of 75 W. The workload increased 25 W every two minutes until he or she was unable to maintain a cadence above 70 RPM for ~10s despite verbal encouragement, or volitional fatigue. Prior to each graded exercise test, open-circuit spirometry (TrueOne 2400® Metabolic Measurement System, Parvo Medics, Inc., Sandy, UT) was calibrated with room air and gases of known concentration, which was used to estimate VO2peak (ml∙kg-1∙min-1) by sampling and analyzing breath-by-breath expired gases. Oxygen (O2), carbon
dioxide (CO2), ventilation (V E), and respiratory selleck chemical exchange ratio (RER)—were monitored continuously and expressed as 30-second averages . VO2peak was determined to be the highest 30-s VO2
value during the test and coincided with at least two of the following three criteria: (a) 90% of age-predicted maximum heart rate; (b) respiratory exchange ratio > 1.1; and/or (c) a plateau of oxygen uptake (less than 150 mL/min increase in VO2 during the last 60 s of the test). The test-retest reliability for VO2peak was ICC = 0.96 (SEM = 1.4 ml.kg.min-1). Ventilatory threshold (VT) and RCP were determined by common methods for determining gas exchange thresholds [26–29]. The VT was determined by plotting and determining the point of increase in the V E/VO2 versus VO2 curve as the Epacadostat V E/VCO2 versus VO2 curve remained constant or decreased [24, 26]. The RCP as described by Beaver et al.  was identified using the V-Slope method by plotting the V E versus VCO2. The VT and RCP were reported as the corresponding VO2 and power output in watts (PVT and PRCP). The test-retest reliability for VT and RCP was ICC = 0.97 (SEM 0.1 ml.kg.min-1) and 0.87 (SEM Meloxicam 0.2 ml.kg.min-1), respectively. Anthropometric measures Body composition was estimated from a scan by DEXA (GE Medical Systems Lunar, Madison, WI, USA; software version 13.60.033) performed by a state licensed x-ray technician. Participants were positioned
supine in the center of the platform and were scanned using the default scan mode for total body scanning. Measures for total lean soft tissue (LSTM) and fat mass were calculated by the system software (Encore 2011, software version 13.60.033). Body composition was analyzed using estimated body fat percentage (%BF) and total lean soft tissue mass (LSTM). The test-retest reliability for LSTM and% BF was ICC = 0.99 (SEM 0.4 kg) and 0.99 (SEM 0.8%BF), respectively. Statistical analyses Statistical software (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0; Armonk, NY: IBM Corp) was used to perform all statistical analysis. Separate one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyze all dependent performance and metabolic variable data based on the recommendations of Huck and McLean .