It also has been reported that there was no correlation between t

It also has been reported that there was no correlation between the number of contrast-enhanced CT examinations and the incidence of CIN [87]; the incidence of AKI did not differ between patients receiving contrast media twice within 32 h and those receiving no contrast media [93]; and the incidence of CIN did not increase in

patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CT followed by CAG [99]. There is no conclusive evidence demonstrating that repeated contrast-enhanced CT increases the risk of CIN. However, because the incidence of CIN increases as the volume of contrast medium used during an examination increases, as described in , repeated exposure to contrast media within

24–48 h may increase the incidence Vactosertib of CIN [7]. Accordingly, repeated contrast-enhanced CT should be avoided in principle, and patients undergoing multiple contrast-enhanced examinations in a short period of time should be examined prior to the use of contrast medium for baseline MDV3100 datasheet kidney function and the risk of CIN, and should also be closely monitored for kidney function after contrast-enhanced CT. Is the risk for developing CIN ZD1839 clinical trial after contrast-enhanced CT higher in outpatients than inpatients? Answer: There is no clear evidence demonstrating that the risk for developing CIN after contrast-enhanced CT is higher in outpatients than in inpatients. Outpatients account for more than half of patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CT. There is an opinion that the incidence of CIN may be higher in outpatients than in inpatients because it is possible that preventive measures before

and after the procedure and postprocedural follow-up are insufficient for outpatients. In a study of 421 patients undergoing nonemergent CT, the incidence of CIN (an increase in SCr levels of ≥25 %) was significantly higher in inpatients (n = 127) than in outpatients (n = 294) (12.6 vs. Cell press 3.6 %) [5]. However, in a study of inpatients (n = 1,111) undergoing contrast procedures, not including coronary procedures, the incidence of CIN (increase in SCr levels of ≥0.5 mg/dL) was 4.6 % [91]. Conversely, in a study of outpatients undergoing contrast-enhanced CT, the incidence of CIN (an increase in SCr levels of ≥0.5 mg/dL or ≥25 %) was 11.1 % (70 of 633 patients) [100]. Earlier-mentioned reports differ substantially in patient characteristics, such as disease severity, that may affect the reported incidence of CIN. There is no conclusive evidence indicating that the incidence of CIN is higher in either group. It is thought to be that the incidence of CIN differ among these reports because of non-uniformity of patient populations such as patient characteristics, disease severity.

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