Int J Vitam Nutr Re 2009, 79 (3) : 131–141 CrossRef 24 Bloomer R

Int J Vitam Nutr Re 2009, 79 (3) : 131–141.CrossRef 24. Bloomer RJ, Smith WA, Fisher-Wellman KH: Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine increases plasma nitrate/nitrite in resistance trained men. J Int Soc Sports Fostamatinib price Nutr 2007, 4: 22.PubMedCrossRef 25. Edwards DG, Schofield RS, Lennon SL, Pierce GL, Nichols WW, Braith RW: Effect of exercise training on endothelial function in men with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2004, 93 (5) : 617–620.PubMedCrossRef 26. Poveda JJ, Riestra A, Salas E, Cagigas ML, Lopez-Somoza C, Amado JA, Berrazueta JR: Contribution of nitric oxide to exercise-induced changes in healthy volunteers: effects of acute exercise and long-term physical training. Eur J Clin Inves 1997, 27

(11) : 967–971.CrossRef Competing interests RJB has received research funding or acted as consultant to nutraceutical and dietary supplement companies. All other authors declare no competing interests. Authors’ contributions RJB was responsible for the study designs, overseeing data collection, biochemical work, statistical analysis, and preparation of the manuscript. TMF,

JFT, CGM, and REC were responsible for data collection/entry and assistance with manuscript preparation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction Among adults 20 years or older, living in the United States, 65.1% are classified as overweight or obese [1]. Furthermore, there is no indication that this trend is improving [1]. Excess body fat has potential physical and psychological health implications as well as potential negative influences

on sport performance as Sinomenine well. The various dietary aspects that are associated with overeating and obesity are not well understood Selleckchem PF 01367338 [2]. One debated area that is often purported to play a role in body weight/composition changes is meal frequency. The amount and type of calories consumed, along with the frequency of eating, is greatly affected by sociological and cultural factors [3]. Recent evidence suggests that the frequency in which one eats may also be, at least in part, genetically influenced [4]. Infants have a natural desire to eat small meals (i.e., nibble) throughout the day [5]. However, as soon as a child reaches a certain age he/she is trained to consume meals in a generally predictable manner [5]. In the modernized world, meal frequency is affected by cultural/social norms as well as an individual’s personal beliefs about his/her health or body composition. According to a study utilizing data from the 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS), the average daily meal frequency for the 3,182 American adults that completed the study was 3.47 [6]. If meals that consisted of less than or equal to 70 kcals, (primarily consisting of tea, coffee, or diet beverages) were excluded from the analysis, the number decreased to 3.12 meals per day. These habits closely mirror the traditional three meals per day pattern (i.e., breakfast, lunch, and dinner) that is common throughout the industrialized world.

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