influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis, and for fastidious organisms. There is therefore a need to develop antibody-based diagnostics that detect specific microbial antigens in a fluid or aspirate. For serological-based assays, ELISA is used in CF patients with P. aeruginosa biofilm infection to detect antibodies specific to P. aeruginosa in general (e.g. water-soluble antigens obtained by sonication of bacterial cells from 17 different serotypes of P. aeruginosa
(Høiby, 1977), or to specific toxins such as P. aeruginosa elastase, alkaline protease or exotoxin A, or alginate to diagnose Selleck AZD6244 P. aeruginosa in serum from CF patients (Pedersen et al., 1990; Pressler et al., 2006, 2009; Proesmans et al., 2006; Ratjen et al., 2007). The exploration
of serological Opaganib manufacturer tests for circulating antibodies specific for other BAI organisms would also add a useful method to the biofilm diagnostic toolbox (Selan et al., 2002; Brady et al., 2006). What clinical information may inform the diagnosis of BAI? Chronic or recurrent infection itself has been suggested as a diagnostic criterion along with recalcitrance of the infection to antibiotic treatment (Høiby et al., 2010a). For example, the BAI in CF is characterized by progressive chronic lung infection in response to multiple respiratory pathogens, which are eventually dominated by P. aeruginosa. This organism then may STK38 adopt a mucoid phenotype that is highly resistant to clearance by antibiotic or host immune responses. CF illustrates several aspects
of biofilm-associated disease (Høiby et al., 2010b) and contrasts with acute pneumonias that are resolved with antibiotic therapy. This parallels chronic OM that is recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment and distinct from acute OM that responds well to antibiotic treatment. Thus, both recalcitrance to antibiotic treatment and long-term duration of the infection are important indicators of BAI. A more detailed diagnostic algorithm will be more likely to result in a more accurate diagnostic tool. At a discussion session regarding clinical biofilms at the 5th ASM Biofilm Conference in Cancun, Mexico (Biofilms 2009 Proceedings, 2010), several images from clinical cases were shown and discussants were asked whether the case was biofilm associated. Consensus was reached primarily by showing microscopic images of aggregated bacteria associated with host tissue. Interestingly, most of the images were considered by the discussants to show biofilms with no knowledge of the specific bacterial etiology or details of the case, indicating that a key attribute was the visual demonstration of aggregated bacteria (by FISH) attached to host tissue, demonstrating evidence of microbial organization as well as a microbial–host interaction.