In the second step, the oligomer was reacted with 4 a m by grad

In the second step, the oligomer was reacted with 4 a. m. by gradually dropping the oligomer into 4 a. m. solution with the mole ratio 4 : 5. By reacting chiral compounds, mandelic acid, menthyl chloroformate, and menthyl glyoxylate GW4064 in vitro hydrate using condensation reaction with amine groups along polyimide molecules, the novel polyimides can be synthesized. Their chemical structures were confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR). The coated glass slides pairs were coated with PI4 a. m. and with

each Polyimide/chiral. The liquid crystals (LCs) were inserted between two coated glass slides at above the nematic temperature under the polarized light microscope to observe the alignment of LCs. The results showed the alignment of LCs in some certain direction under Polyimide/chiral pair, regardless of the type of the chiral

molecule. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 3265-3277, 2011″
“Study Design. Retrospective, case-control study.

Objective. Determine risk factors for postoperative wound infections after surgery for neuromuscular scoliosis as well as the causative organisms and the results of treatment.

Summary of Background Data. Wound infection after surgery for neuromuscular scoliosis is more common than that for idiopathic scoliosis. A variety of potential risk factors have been identified, but few have demonstrated statistical significance.

Methods. The Pediatric Orthopedic Spine Database identified 151 patients with neuromuscular scoliosis find more who underwent surgery and had a follow-up of minimum of 2 years. A to

tal of eight patients (5.3% prevalence) developed a postoperative wound infection. Nine patients without an infection selleck inhibitor were matched by year and type of surgery, for each patient with an infection and selected as controls (n = 72). Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors were analyzed for an association with wound infection by using stepwise logistic regression. In addition, causative organisms as well as the methods and results of treatment were recorded for each patient.

Results. The control group consisted of 32 males and 40 females with a mean age of 13.3 years (range, 7-21 years) and a mean follow-up of 4.6 years (range, 2.0-20.9 years) at surgery. The infection group (n = 8) consisted of four males and four females with a mean age of 12.5 years (range, 11-14 years) and a mean follow-up of 5.1 year (range, 2.0-12.3 years) at surgery. There were five early and three late wound infections. The presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt before surgery was the only factor statistically associated with an increased risk for wound infection (P < 0.01). In addition, infection was associated with pseudarthrosis (P < 0.01) and an increased length of hospitalization (P < 0.01).

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