In addition, the complex in vitro techniques often used for cytok

In addition, the complex in vitro techniques often used for cytokine assessment are not easily implemented in a clinical setting. In this study, we investigated Th1-type (IL12 and TNFα) and Anti-infection Compound Library clinical trial Th2-type (IL4 and IL10) cytokine levels in sera from patients with hepatic CE at different and clearly defined US stages. The assessment of serum cytokines, although not antigen specific, would

be easily implemented in a clinical setting. Patients were retrospectively selected among those who are followed for CE in the Division of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, Pavia, Italy) and met the following criteria: (i) presence at least of one hepatic CE cyst; (ii) no previous surgery for CE; (iii) no albendazole (ABZ) treatment or ABZ discontinuation at least 12 months before at the moment of serum collection; (iv) serum collected and stored at −80°C within 12 months before cytokine dosage.

BVD-523 research buy Three healthy volunteers (one man and two women of same patients’ range of age) were included as controls. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee of San Matteo Hospital Foundation in Pavia and each subject gave informed written consent. All patients were examined by a clinician with long-standing experience in US (E.B.) using a commercially available US scanner with 3·5–7·5 MHz convex probes (H21 Hitachi Logos Hi Vision, Tokyo, Japan, and MyLab70 Xvision; Esaote, Genova, Italy). Cysts were classified according to the WHO-IWGE standardized US classification for CE (15) (Figure 1) as CE1 and CE2 (active), CE3 (transitional), and CE4 and CE5 (inactive). Transitional CE3 cysts were further divided into 2 subgroups, CE3a and CE3b, based on their difference in response to nonsurgical treatments Carbohydrate and biological activity (16). Patients having multiple cysts were classified according to the more active stage, in accordance

with the results of Hosch et al. (7). All patients were tested for anti-Echinococcus Ab by IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Cypress Diagnostic, Langdorp, Belgium) and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA Cellogenost Echinococcosis; Dade Behring, Newark, USA). Serum levels of IL12, TNFα, IL4 and IL10 were assessed using commercial sandwich ELISA kits (EIA Immunoassay; Immunotech SAS, Marseille, France) according to manufacturer’s instructions. The lower sensitivity level was 5 pg/mL for all cytokines. All tests were carried out in duplicate. An intertest variation with R-squared ≥75% was considered adequate. The mean value of duplicates was used for statistical analysis. Difference in percentage of patients with detectable levels of each cytokine between groups was assessed by chi-squared test. Difference in median levels of cytokines and median (by IgG-ELISA) and geometric mean (by IHA) Ab levels between the CE groups were assessed by Kruskal–Wallis test.

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